Clinical features of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children undergoing long-term azithromycin treatment.Exp Ther Med 2015; 9(6):2379-2383ET
The aim of the present study was to outline any predisposing factors and clinical and radiological features of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) in pediatric patients, and to determine the effect of long-term azithromycin treatment on these factors. In total, 16 cases of children with PIBO were retrospectively reviewed. Adenovirus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were the most common etiological agents (12/16) in the children with PIBO. The patients presented with persistent dyspnea, a chronic cough, sputum production and wheezing following the initial lung infection. Chest X-rays indicated pulmonary overinflation and patchy ground-glass opacity. In addition, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans revealed patchy ground-glass opacity, bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening and mosaic perfusion in all 16 cases. A unilateral hyperlucent lung was observed in two cases. All the patients underwent treatment with low-dose azithromycin and prednisone. Follow-up examinations of the 16 cases, varying in duration between 7 and 31 months, showed that the disease condition had improved in 10 cases. However, no significant improvements were identified from the HRCT scans or were observed in the patient condition in the additional six cases. The diagnosis of BO is primarily based on a typical clinical presentation and HRCT observations. Therefore, a typical clinical history and patchy ground-glass opacity features on HRCT scans are screening indices that predict BO development. Steroids are the cornerstone of BO treatment; however, long-term azithromycin treatment can improve the condition of the patients. In summary, PIBO is a disease with a high morbidity rate and should be treated by a multidisciplinary team. Patients should receive follow-up examination for an extended period. Patchy ground-glass opacity features on HRCT scans indicate that clinical suspicion of BO is necessary in children with persistent and severe wheezing.