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Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines.
Am J Prev Med. 2015 Oct; 49(4):493-501.AJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly associated with drug overdose deaths. This study was conducted to assess trends in nonmedical use-related emergency department (ED) visits and drug overdose deaths that involved both opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines in the U.S. from 2004 to 2011.

METHODS

Opioid analgesic and benzodiazepine nonmedical use-related ED visits from the Drug Abuse Warning Network and drug overdose deaths from the National Vital Statistics System were analyzed for 2004-2011 to determine trends and demographic-specific rates. Data were analyzed from March 2014 to June 2014.

RESULTS

From 2004 to 2011, the rate of nonmedical use-related ED visits involving both opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increased from 11.0 to 34.2 per 100,000 population (p-trend<0.0001). During the same period, drug overdose deaths involving both drugs increased from 0.6 to 1.7 per 100,000 (p-trend<0.0001). Statistically significant increases in ED visits occurred among males and females, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics, and all age groups except 12- to 17-year-olds. For overdose deaths, statistically significant increases were seen in males and females, all three race/ethnicity groups, and all age groups except 12- to 17-year-olds. Benzodiazepine involvement in opioid analgesic overdose deaths increased each year, increasing from 18% of opioid analgesic overdose deaths in 2004 to 31% in 2011 (p-trend<0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

ED visits and drug overdose deaths involving both opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increased significantly between 2004 and 2011. Interventions to improve the appropriate prescribing and use of these medications are needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of the Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. Electronic address: christopher.m.jones@fda.hhs.gov.Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26143953

Citation

Jones, Christopher M., and Jana K. McAninch. "Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 49, no. 4, 2015, pp. 493-501.
Jones CM, McAninch JK. Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(4):493-501.
Jones, C. M., & McAninch, J. K. (2015). Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 493-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.03.040
Jones CM, McAninch JK. Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(4):493-501. PubMed PMID: 26143953.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines. AU - Jones,Christopher M, AU - McAninch,Jana K, Y1 - 2015/07/03/ PY - 2014/10/27/received PY - 2015/03/27/revised PY - 2015/03/27/accepted PY - 2015/7/7/entrez PY - 2015/7/7/pubmed PY - 2016/7/2/medline SP - 493 EP - 501 JF - American journal of preventive medicine JO - Am J Prev Med VL - 49 IS - 4 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly associated with drug overdose deaths. This study was conducted to assess trends in nonmedical use-related emergency department (ED) visits and drug overdose deaths that involved both opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines in the U.S. from 2004 to 2011. METHODS: Opioid analgesic and benzodiazepine nonmedical use-related ED visits from the Drug Abuse Warning Network and drug overdose deaths from the National Vital Statistics System were analyzed for 2004-2011 to determine trends and demographic-specific rates. Data were analyzed from March 2014 to June 2014. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2011, the rate of nonmedical use-related ED visits involving both opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increased from 11.0 to 34.2 per 100,000 population (p-trend<0.0001). During the same period, drug overdose deaths involving both drugs increased from 0.6 to 1.7 per 100,000 (p-trend<0.0001). Statistically significant increases in ED visits occurred among males and females, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics, and all age groups except 12- to 17-year-olds. For overdose deaths, statistically significant increases were seen in males and females, all three race/ethnicity groups, and all age groups except 12- to 17-year-olds. Benzodiazepine involvement in opioid analgesic overdose deaths increased each year, increasing from 18% of opioid analgesic overdose deaths in 2004 to 31% in 2011 (p-trend<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: ED visits and drug overdose deaths involving both opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increased significantly between 2004 and 2011. Interventions to improve the appropriate prescribing and use of these medications are needed. SN - 1873-2607 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26143953/Emergency_Department_Visits_and_Overdose_Deaths_From_Combined_Use_of_Opioids_and_Benzodiazepines_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749-3797(15)00163-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -