Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in urban adult Cameroonians according to three common estimators of the glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional study.BMC Nephrol. 2015 Jul 07; 16:96.BN
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major threat to the health of people of African ancestry. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of CKD among adults in urban Cameroon.
This was a cross-sectional study of two months duration (March to April 2013) conducted at the Cité des Palmiers health district in the Littoral region of Cameroon. A multistage cluster sampling approach was applied. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was based on the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the predictors of CKD.
In the 500 participants with a mean age of 45.3 ± 13.2 years included, we observed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (60.4 %), hypertension (38.6 %) and diabetes (2.8 %). The mean eGFR was 93.7 ± 24.9, 97.8 ± 24.9 and 99.2 ± 31.4 ml/min respectively with the MDRD, CG and CKD-EPI equations. The prevalence of albuminuria was 7.2 % while the prevalence of decreased GFR (eGFR < 60 ml/min) and CKD (any albuminuria and/or eGFR < 60 ml/min) was 4.4 and 11 % with MDRD, 5.4 and 14.2 % with CG, and 8.8 and 10 % with CKD-EPI. In age and sex adjusted logistic regression models, advanced age, known hypertension and diabetes mellitus, increasing body mass index and overweight/obesity were the predictors of albuminuria, decreased GFR and CKD according to various estimators.
There is a high prevalence of CKD in urban adults Cameroonian, driven essentially by the commonest risk factors for CKD.