Marginal Iodine Status and High Rate of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Washington DC Women Planning Conception.
INTRODUCTIONSubclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A subset of pregnant women in the United States have been shown to have mild iodine deficiency. No study has evaluated the thyroid and iodine status of women who are planning to become pregnant in the near future.
METHODSThyroid function tests, thyroid antibodies, and urine iodine levels were evaluated in women presenting for preconception screening and counseling. A thyrotropin (TSH) level above 3.0 mIU/L was considered abnormal.
RESULTSOne hundred and forty one women enrolled in the study. The median TSH level was 1.70 mIU/L (range 0.43-5.3 mIU/L). Sixteen women (11%) had a TSH above the upper limit of normal (>3.0 mIU/L). Eleven women (8%) were positive for TPO-Ab and 21 women (15%) for TgAb. Twenty-three women (16%) were positive for at least one thyroid antibody (TPOAb and/or TgAb). Median serum TSH concentrations were higher in women with detectable antithyroid antibodies than in women who were antibody negative (2.2 mIU/L vs. 1.7 mIU/L; p=0.005). The median urinary iodine concentration was 100.5 μg (range 19-843 μg/L).
DISCUSSIONThe present cohort exhibited the lowest median urinary iodine concentration levels to date reported in the United States for women in their childbearing years. One out of every nine women (11%) had thyroid function tests consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism.
1 Department of Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Washington, DC.,
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Washington, DC.,
3 Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine , Boston, Massachusetts.,
4 Department of Medicine, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, California.
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Washington, DC.
District of Columbia
Severity of Illness Index
Thyroid Function Tests
Pub Type(s)Journal Article