Medicinal Chemistry: Insights into the Development of Novel H2S Donors.Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2015; 230:365-88.HE
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was traditionally considered as a toxic gas. However, recent studies have demonstrated H2S is an endogenously generated gaseous signaling molecule (gasotransmitter) with importance on par with that of two other well-known endogenous gasotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Although H2S's exact mechanisms of action are still under investigation, the production of endogenous H2S and the exogenous administration of H2S have been demonstrated to elicit a wide range of physiological responses including modulation of blood pressure and protection of ischemia reperfusion injury, exertion of anti-inflammatory effects, and reduction of metabolic rate. These results strongly suggest that modulation of H2S levels could have potential therapeutic values. In this regard, synthetic H2S-releasing agents (i.e., H2S donors) are not only important research tools, but also potential therapeutic agents. This chapter summarizes the knowledge of currently available H2S donors. Their preparation, H2S releasing mechanisms, and biological applications are discussed.