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Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation.
Brain Connect. 2016 Feb; 6(1):9-24.BC

Abstract

Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Brain Mapping Unit and Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom . 2 Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan .3 Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan .1 Brain Mapping Unit and Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom .4 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Central University , Taoyuan, Taiwan .5 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble Image Parole Signal Automatique , Grenoble, France .3 Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan . 6 Neurobiology and Cognitive Science Center, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan .3 Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan .3 Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan .1 Brain Mapping Unit and Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom . 7 Alternative Discovery and Development , GlaxoSmithKline, Cambridge, United Kingdom . 8 Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust , Cambridge, United Kingdom .

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26165867

Citation

Jao, Tun, et al. "Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation." Brain Connectivity, vol. 6, no. 1, 2016, pp. 9-24.
Jao T, Li CW, Vértes PE, et al. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation. Brain Connect. 2016;6(1):9-24.
Jao, T., Li, C. W., Vértes, P. E., Wu, C. W., Achard, S., Hsieh, C. H., Liou, C. H., Chen, J. H., & Bullmore, E. T. (2016). Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation. Brain Connectivity, 6(1), 9-24. https://doi.org/10.1089/brain.2014.0318
Jao T, et al. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation. Brain Connect. 2016;6(1):9-24. PubMed PMID: 26165867.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation. AU - Jao,Tun, AU - Li,Chia-Wei, AU - Vértes,Petra E, AU - Wu,Changwei Wesley, AU - Achard,Sophie, AU - Hsieh,Chao-Hsien, AU - Liou,Chien-Hui, AU - Chen,Jyh-Horng, AU - Bullmore,Edward T, Y1 - 2015/10/06/ PY - 2015/7/14/entrez PY - 2015/7/15/pubmed PY - 2016/10/26/medline KW - brain networks KW - consciousness KW - fMRI KW - functional connectivity KW - meditation KW - network hubs KW - resting state SP - 9 EP - 24 JF - Brain connectivity JO - Brain Connect VL - 6 IS - 1 N2 - Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness. SN - 2158-0022 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26165867/Large_Scale_Functional_Brain_Network_Reorganization_During_Taoist_Meditation_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/brain.2014.0318?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -