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Spectral power and functional connectivity changes during mindfulness meditation with eyes open: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in long-term meditators.
Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Oct; 98(1):95-111.IJ

Abstract

Whilst a number of previous studies have been conducted in order to investigate functional brain changes associated with eyes-closed meditation techniques, there is a relative scarcity in the literature with regards to changes occurring during eyes-open meditation. The current project used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate differences in spectral power and functional connectivity between 11 long-term mindfulness meditators (LTMMs) with >5 years of experience and 12 meditation-naïve control participants both during baseline eyes-open rest and eyes-open open-monitoring (OM) mindfulness meditation. During resting with eyes-open, prior to meditating, greater mean alpha power was observed for LTMMs in comparison to controls. However, during the course of OM meditation, a significantly greater increase in theta power was observed over a broad fronto-centro-parietal region for control participants in comparison to LTMMs. In contrast, whole-head mean connectivity was found to be significantly greater for long-term meditators in comparison to controls in the theta band both during rest as well as during meditation. Additionally, mean connectivity was significantly lower for long-term meditators in the low gamma band during rest and significantly lower in both low and high gamma bands during meditation; and the variance of low-gamma connectivity scores for long-term meditators was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The current study provides important new information as to the trait functional changes in brain activity associated with long-term mindfulness meditation, as well as the state changes specifically associated with eyes-open open monitoring meditation techniques.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia; Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia; School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address: camfield@uow.edu.au.Brain & Psychological Sciences Research Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia; The University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne, Australia.Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26166440

Citation

Wong, W P., et al. "Spectral Power and Functional Connectivity Changes During Mindfulness Meditation With Eyes Open: a Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study in Long-term Meditators." International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, vol. 98, no. 1, 2015, pp. 95-111.
Wong WP, Camfield DA, Woods W, et al. Spectral power and functional connectivity changes during mindfulness meditation with eyes open: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in long-term meditators. Int J Psychophysiol. 2015;98(1):95-111.
Wong, W. P., Camfield, D. A., Woods, W., Sarris, J., & Pipingas, A. (2015). Spectral power and functional connectivity changes during mindfulness meditation with eyes open: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in long-term meditators. International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 98(1), 95-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.07.006
Wong WP, et al. Spectral Power and Functional Connectivity Changes During Mindfulness Meditation With Eyes Open: a Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study in Long-term Meditators. Int J Psychophysiol. 2015;98(1):95-111. PubMed PMID: 26166440.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Spectral power and functional connectivity changes during mindfulness meditation with eyes open: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in long-term meditators. AU - Wong,W P, AU - Camfield,D A, AU - Woods,W, AU - Sarris,J, AU - Pipingas,A, Y1 - 2015/07/10/ PY - 2015/03/04/received PY - 2015/07/07/revised PY - 2015/07/08/accepted PY - 2015/7/14/entrez PY - 2015/7/15/pubmed PY - 2016/6/18/medline KW - Default mode network KW - Eyes-open resting state KW - Functional connectivity KW - Gamma power KW - Magnetoencephalography (MEG) KW - Meditation KW - Mindfulness KW - Phase synchronisation KW - Theta power SP - 95 EP - 111 JF - International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology JO - Int J Psychophysiol VL - 98 IS - 1 N2 - Whilst a number of previous studies have been conducted in order to investigate functional brain changes associated with eyes-closed meditation techniques, there is a relative scarcity in the literature with regards to changes occurring during eyes-open meditation. The current project used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate differences in spectral power and functional connectivity between 11 long-term mindfulness meditators (LTMMs) with >5 years of experience and 12 meditation-naïve control participants both during baseline eyes-open rest and eyes-open open-monitoring (OM) mindfulness meditation. During resting with eyes-open, prior to meditating, greater mean alpha power was observed for LTMMs in comparison to controls. However, during the course of OM meditation, a significantly greater increase in theta power was observed over a broad fronto-centro-parietal region for control participants in comparison to LTMMs. In contrast, whole-head mean connectivity was found to be significantly greater for long-term meditators in comparison to controls in the theta band both during rest as well as during meditation. Additionally, mean connectivity was significantly lower for long-term meditators in the low gamma band during rest and significantly lower in both low and high gamma bands during meditation; and the variance of low-gamma connectivity scores for long-term meditators was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The current study provides important new information as to the trait functional changes in brain activity associated with long-term mindfulness meditation, as well as the state changes specifically associated with eyes-open open monitoring meditation techniques. SN - 1872-7697 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26166440/Spectral_power_and_functional_connectivity_changes_during_mindfulness_meditation_with_eyes_open:_A_magnetoencephalography__MEG__study_in_long_term_meditators_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167-8760(15)30009-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -