BRAF(V600E) Mutation, RET/PTC1 and PAX8-PPAR Gamma Rearrangements in Follicular Epithelium Derived Thyroid Lesions - Institutional Experience and Literature Review.Balkan Med J 2015; 32(2):156-66BM
Thyroid cancers are the most frequently occurring endocrine malignancy worldwide. In Turkey, thyroid cancers are ranked 2(nd) on the incidence list in women, with a rate of 16.2%, but they are not included among the top 10 cancer types in men.
To identify the contribution of the BRAF(V600E) mutation, and the RET/PTC1 and PAX8-PPARγ rearrangements in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of follicular epithelial-derived thyroid lesions.
Retrospective clinical and molecular genetic study.
A total of 86 thyroid cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 at the Department of Pathology were included in the retrospective study group. Samples best representing the lesion and comprising capsules were chosen in the selection of paraffin blocks pertaining to the cases. The BRAF(V600E) mutation, and the RET/PTC1 and PAX8-PPARγ rearrangements were investigated in all cases.
The BRAF(V600E) mutation was observed in 12 out of 37 papillary carcinoma cases (32.4%), in 1 out of 15 follicular carcinoma cases (6.6%), and in 1 out of 7 undifferentiated carcinoma cases (14.3%). No mutation was detected in benign lesions. The RET/PTC1 rearrangement was detected in 2 out of 7 undifferentiated carcinoma cases (28.6%), and in 1 out of 15 follicular carcinoma cases (6.6%). No gene rearrangement was detected in benign lesions. The PAX8-PPARγ rearrangement was detected in 5 out of 15 follicular thyroid carcinoma cases (33.3%) and in 1 out of 15 follicular adenoma cases (6.6%).
The BRAF(V600E) mutation and RET/PTC1 rearrangement were effective in distinguishing the follicular epithelium-derived benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid in the resection materials. The BRAF(V600E) mutation was rather specific to papillary carcinoma in the thyroid, and in cases where the BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected, multi-centricity, lymph node metastasis and capsular invasion findings were observed more frequently compared to cases in which no mutation was observed. The PAX8-PPARγ rearrangement was observed to be more effective in the differentiation of adenomas and carcinomas in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid, whereas the RET/PTC1 analysis contributed to the differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma histogenesis at a frequency of 29% in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas.