Effects of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase subtypes, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, and porin mutations on the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Sep; 59(9):5793-7.AA
Avibactam is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with affinity for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs). In combination with ceftazidime, the agent demonstrates activity against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp). KPC-Kp strains are genetically diverse and harbor multiple resistance determinants, including defects in outer membrane proteins and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Mutations in porin gene ompK36 confer high-level carbapenem resistance to KPC-Kp strains. Whether specific mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance also influence the activity of ceftazidime-avibactam is unknown. We defined the effects of ceftazidime-avibactam against 72 KPC-Kp strains with diverse mechanisms of resistance, including various combinations of KPC subtypes and ESBL and ompK36 mutations. Ceftazidime MICs ranged from 64 to 4,096 μg/ml and were lowered by a median of 512-fold with the addition of avibactam. All strains exhibited ceftazidime-avibactam MICs at or below the CLSI breakpoint for ceftazidime (≤4 μg/ml; range, 0.25 to 4). However, the MICs were within two 2-fold dilutions of the CLSI breakpoint against 24% of the strains, and those strains would be classified as nonsusceptible to ceftazidime by EUCAST criteria (MIC > 1 μg/ml). Median ceftazidime-avibactam MICs were higher against KPC-3 than KPC-2 variants (P = 0.02). Among KPC-2-Kp strains, the presence of both ESBL and porin mutations was associated with higher drug MICs compared to those seen with either factor alone (P = 0.003 and P = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, ceftazidime-avibactam displays activity against genetically diverse KPC-Kp strains. Strains with higher-level drug MICs provide a reason for caution. Judicious use of ceftazidime-avibactam alone or in combination with other agents will be important to prevent the emergence of resistance.