Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy.
Semin Cutan Med Surg 2015; 34(2):95-100SC

Abstract

The nail unit is the largest and a rather complex skin appendage. It is located on the dorsal aspect of the tips of fingers and toes and has important protective and sensory functions. Development begins in utero between weeks 7 and 8 and is fully formed at birth. For its correct development, a great number of signals are necessary. Anatomically, it consists of 4 epithelial components: the matrix that forms the nail plate; the nail bed that firmly attaches the plate to the distal phalanx; the hyponychium that forms a natural barrier at the physiological point of separation of the nail from the bed; and the eponychium that represents the undersurface of the proximal nail fold which is responsible for the formation of the cuticle. The connective tissue components of the matrix and nail bed dermis are located between the corresponding epithelia and the bone of the distal phalanx. Characteristics of the connective tissue include: a morphogenetic potency for the regeneration of their epithelia; the lateral and proximal nail folds form a distally open frame for the growing nail; and the tip of the digit has rich sensible and sensory innervation. The blood supply is provided by the paired volar and dorsal digital arteries. Veins and lymphatic vessels are less well defined. The microscopic anatomy varies from nail subregion to subregion. Several different biopsy techniques are available for the histopathological evaluation of nail alterations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Dermatology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland. haneke@gmx.net. Dermatology Practice Dermaticum, Freiburg, Germany. Centro Dermatology, Instituto CUF, Porto, Portugal. Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26176287

Citation

Haneke, Eckart. "Anatomy of the Nail Unit and the Nail Biopsy." Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, vol. 34, no. 2, 2015, pp. 95-100.
Haneke E. Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2015;34(2):95-100.
Haneke, E. (2015). Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 34(2), pp. 95-100. doi:10.12788/j.sder.2015.0143.
Haneke E. Anatomy of the Nail Unit and the Nail Biopsy. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2015;34(2):95-100. PubMed PMID: 26176287.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy. A1 - Haneke,Eckart, PY - 2015/7/16/entrez PY - 2015/7/16/pubmed PY - 2016/2/5/medline KW - biopsy techniques KW - distal interphalangeal joint KW - extensor tendon KW - hyponychium KW - matrix KW - nail folds KW - nail unit KW - nailbed KW - terminal phalanx SP - 95 EP - 100 JF - Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery JO - Semin Cutan Med Surg VL - 34 IS - 2 N2 - The nail unit is the largest and a rather complex skin appendage. It is located on the dorsal aspect of the tips of fingers and toes and has important protective and sensory functions. Development begins in utero between weeks 7 and 8 and is fully formed at birth. For its correct development, a great number of signals are necessary. Anatomically, it consists of 4 epithelial components: the matrix that forms the nail plate; the nail bed that firmly attaches the plate to the distal phalanx; the hyponychium that forms a natural barrier at the physiological point of separation of the nail from the bed; and the eponychium that represents the undersurface of the proximal nail fold which is responsible for the formation of the cuticle. The connective tissue components of the matrix and nail bed dermis are located between the corresponding epithelia and the bone of the distal phalanx. Characteristics of the connective tissue include: a morphogenetic potency for the regeneration of their epithelia; the lateral and proximal nail folds form a distally open frame for the growing nail; and the tip of the digit has rich sensible and sensory innervation. The blood supply is provided by the paired volar and dorsal digital arteries. Veins and lymphatic vessels are less well defined. The microscopic anatomy varies from nail subregion to subregion. Several different biopsy techniques are available for the histopathological evaluation of nail alterations. SN - 1085-5629 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26176287/Anatomy_of_the_nail_unit_and_the_nail_biopsy_ L2 - http://scmsjournal.com/article/buy_now/?id=21 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -