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Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep; 102(3):648-54.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse.

OBJECTIVE

We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche.

DESIGN

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9-10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche.

RESULTS

Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche.

CONCLUSION

Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health and Institute of Human Nutrition and Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY; nm2768@columbia.edu.Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, George Washington University, Washington, DC.Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26178725

Citation

Mueller, Noel T., et al. "Consumption of Caffeinated and Artificially Sweetened Soft Drinks Is Associated With Risk of Early Menarche." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 3, 2015, pp. 648-54.
Mueller NT, Jacobs DR, MacLehose RF, et al. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(3):648-54.
Mueller, N. T., Jacobs, D. R., MacLehose, R. F., Demerath, E. W., Kelly, S. P., Dreyfus, J. G., & Pereira, M. A. (2015). Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(3), 648-54. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.100958
Mueller NT, et al. Consumption of Caffeinated and Artificially Sweetened Soft Drinks Is Associated With Risk of Early Menarche. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(3):648-54. PubMed PMID: 26178725.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche. AU - Mueller,Noel T, AU - Jacobs,David R,Jr AU - MacLehose,Richard F, AU - Demerath,Ellen W, AU - Kelly,Scott P, AU - Dreyfus,Jill G, AU - Pereira,Mark A, Y1 - 2015/07/15/ PY - 2014/10/15/received PY - 2015/06/12/accepted PY - 2015/7/17/entrez PY - 2015/7/17/pubmed PY - 2015/12/15/medline KW - aspartame KW - caffeine KW - diet KW - epidemiology KW - puberty KW - sugar-sweetened beverages SP - 648 EP - 54 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 102 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. DESIGN: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9-10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. RESULTS: Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. CONCLUSION: Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26178725/Consumption_of_caffeinated_and_artificially_sweetened_soft_drinks_is_associated_with_risk_of_early_menarche_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.100958 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -