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High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Evolution. 2015 08; 69(8):2196-209.E

Abstract

Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity buildup, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator polewards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical latitudes. Here we investigate this phenomenon from a macroevolutionary perspective, focusing on a well-sampled group of edible EM mushrooms from the genus Amanita-the Caesar's mushrooms, which follow similar diversity patterns. Our approach consisted in applying a suite of models including (1) nontrait-dependent time-varying diversification (Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures [BAMM]), (2) continuous trait-dependent diversification (quantitative-state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]), and (3) diversity-dependent diversification. In short, results give strong support for high speciation rates at temperate latitudes (BAMM and QuaSSE). We also find some evidence for different diversity-dependence thresholds in "temperate" and "tropical" subclades, and little differences in diversity due to extinction. We conclude that our analyses on the Caesar's mushrooms give further evidence of a temperate-peaking LDG in EM fungi, highlighting the importance and the implications of macroevolutionary processes in explaining diversity gradients in microorganisms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2, Canada. santiago.snchez@gmail.com. Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2C6, Canada. santiago.snchez@gmail.com.Community and Conservation Ecology and Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Box 11103, 9700 CC, Groningen, The Netherlands.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2, Canada. Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2C6, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26179951

Citation

Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago, et al. "High Speciation Rate at Temperate Latitudes Explains Unusual Diversity Gradients in a Clade of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi." Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, vol. 69, no. 8, 2015, pp. 2196-209.
Sánchez-Ramírez S, Etienne RS, Moncalvo JM. High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Evolution. 2015;69(8):2196-209.
Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Etienne, R. S., & Moncalvo, J. M. (2015). High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, 69(8), 2196-209. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.12722
Sánchez-Ramírez S, Etienne RS, Moncalvo JM. High Speciation Rate at Temperate Latitudes Explains Unusual Diversity Gradients in a Clade of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi. Evolution. 2015;69(8):2196-209. PubMed PMID: 26179951.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi. AU - Sánchez-Ramírez,Santiago, AU - Etienne,Rampal S, AU - Moncalvo,Jean-Marc, Y1 - 2015/08/06/ PY - 2015/08/01/received PY - 2015/06/15/revised PY - 2015/06/23/accepted PY - 2015/7/17/entrez PY - 2015/7/17/pubmed PY - 2016/4/28/medline KW - Amanita KW - BAMM KW - Caesar's mushrooms KW - Ornstein-Uhlenbeck KW - QuaSSE KW - diversity-dependent diversification KW - macroevolution KW - speciation and extinction SP - 2196 EP - 209 JF - Evolution; international journal of organic evolution JO - Evolution VL - 69 IS - 8 N2 - Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity buildup, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator polewards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical latitudes. Here we investigate this phenomenon from a macroevolutionary perspective, focusing on a well-sampled group of edible EM mushrooms from the genus Amanita-the Caesar's mushrooms, which follow similar diversity patterns. Our approach consisted in applying a suite of models including (1) nontrait-dependent time-varying diversification (Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures [BAMM]), (2) continuous trait-dependent diversification (quantitative-state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]), and (3) diversity-dependent diversification. In short, results give strong support for high speciation rates at temperate latitudes (BAMM and QuaSSE). We also find some evidence for different diversity-dependence thresholds in "temperate" and "tropical" subclades, and little differences in diversity due to extinction. We conclude that our analyses on the Caesar's mushrooms give further evidence of a temperate-peaking LDG in EM fungi, highlighting the importance and the implications of macroevolutionary processes in explaining diversity gradients in microorganisms. SN - 1558-5646 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26179951/High_speciation_rate_at_temperate_latitudes_explains_unusual_diversity_gradients_in_a_clade_of_ectomycorrhizal_fungi_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.12722 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -