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Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study.
Diabetes Care 2016; 39(1):31-8DC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Dietary interventions can improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared the effect of a low-glycemic index (GI) versus a conventional high-fiber (HF) diet on pregnancy outcomes, birth weight z score, and maternal metabolic profile in women at high risk of GDM.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

One hundred thirty-nine women [mean (SD) age 34.7 (0.4) years and prepregnancy BMI 25.2 (0.5) kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a low-GI (LGI) diet (n = 72; target GI ∼50) or a high-fiber, moderate-GI (HF) diet (n = 67; target GI ∼60) at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Diet was assessed by 3-day food records and infant body composition by air-displacement plethysmography, and pregnancy outcomes were assessed from medical records.

RESULTS

The LGI group achieved a lower GI than the HF group [mean (SD) 50 (5) vs. 58 (5); P < 0.001]. There were no differences in glycosylated hemoglobin, fructosamine, or lipids at 36 weeks or differences in birth weight [LGI 3.4 (0.4) kg vs. HF 3.4 (0.5) kg; P = 0.514], birth weight z score [LGI 0.31 (0.90) vs. HF 0.24 (1.07); P = 0.697], ponderal index [LGI 2.71 (0.22) vs. HF 2.69 (0.23) kg/m(3); P = 0.672], birth weight centile [LGI 46.2 (25.4) vs. HF 41.8 (25.6); P = 0.330], % fat mass [LGI 10 (4) vs. HF 10 (4); P = 0.789], or incidence of GDM.

CONCLUSIONS

In intensively monitored women at risk for GDM, a low-GI diet and a healthy diet produce similar pregnancy outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia tania.markovic@sydney.edu.au.The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.RPA Women and Babies, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26185283

Citation

Markovic, Tania P., et al. "Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet On Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: the GI Baby 3 Study." Diabetes Care, vol. 39, no. 1, 2016, pp. 31-8.
Markovic TP, Muirhead R, Overs S, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(1):31-8.
Markovic, T. P., Muirhead, R., Overs, S., Ross, G. P., Louie, J. C., Kizirian, N., ... Brand-Miller, J. C. (2016). Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study. Diabetes Care, 39(1), pp. 31-8. doi:10.2337/dc15-0572.
Markovic TP, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet On Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: the GI Baby 3 Study. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(1):31-8. PubMed PMID: 26185283.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study. AU - Markovic,Tania P, AU - Muirhead,Ros, AU - Overs,Shannon, AU - Ross,Glynis P, AU - Louie,Jimmy Chun Yu, AU - Kizirian,Nathalie, AU - Denyer,Gareth, AU - Petocz,Peter, AU - Hyett,Jon, AU - Brand-Miller,Jennie C, Y1 - 2015/07/16/ PY - 2015/03/23/received PY - 2015/06/22/accepted PY - 2015/7/18/entrez PY - 2015/7/18/pubmed PY - 2016/6/2/medline SP - 31 EP - 8 JF - Diabetes care JO - Diabetes Care VL - 39 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Dietary interventions can improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared the effect of a low-glycemic index (GI) versus a conventional high-fiber (HF) diet on pregnancy outcomes, birth weight z score, and maternal metabolic profile in women at high risk of GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-nine women [mean (SD) age 34.7 (0.4) years and prepregnancy BMI 25.2 (0.5) kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a low-GI (LGI) diet (n = 72; target GI ∼50) or a high-fiber, moderate-GI (HF) diet (n = 67; target GI ∼60) at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Diet was assessed by 3-day food records and infant body composition by air-displacement plethysmography, and pregnancy outcomes were assessed from medical records. RESULTS: The LGI group achieved a lower GI than the HF group [mean (SD) 50 (5) vs. 58 (5); P < 0.001]. There were no differences in glycosylated hemoglobin, fructosamine, or lipids at 36 weeks or differences in birth weight [LGI 3.4 (0.4) kg vs. HF 3.4 (0.5) kg; P = 0.514], birth weight z score [LGI 0.31 (0.90) vs. HF 0.24 (1.07); P = 0.697], ponderal index [LGI 2.71 (0.22) vs. HF 2.69 (0.23) kg/m(3); P = 0.672], birth weight centile [LGI 46.2 (25.4) vs. HF 41.8 (25.6); P = 0.330], % fat mass [LGI 10 (4) vs. HF 10 (4); P = 0.789], or incidence of GDM. CONCLUSIONS: In intensively monitored women at risk for GDM, a low-GI diet and a healthy diet produce similar pregnancy outcomes. SN - 1935-5548 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26185283/Randomized_Controlled_Trial_Investigating_the_Effects_of_a_Low_Glycemic_Index_Diet_on_Pregnancy_Outcomes_in_Women_at_High_Risk_of_Gestational_Diabetes_Mellitus:_The_GI_Baby_3_Study_ L2 - http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=26185283 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -