In vivo induction of antioxidant response and oxidative stress associated with genotoxicity and histopathological alteration in two commercial fish species due to heavy metals exposure in northern India (Kali) river.Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Oct-Nov; 176-177:17-30.CB
Heavy metals can significantly bioaccumulate in fish tissues. The step wise mechanism of heavy metal toxicities on fish health is still limited. The present study assessed the tissue-specific antioxidant response and oxidative stress biomarkers of commercially important fish species namely, Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis inhabiting Kali River of northern India where heavy-metal load is beyond the World Health Organisation - maximum permissible limits. Heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were elevated in both fish species compared to recommended values of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), 1999 for edible fishes. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CATA) activities in all tissues (brachial, neural, renal and hepatic) were altered. Cellular lipid and protein compromisation in both fishes induced by heavy metals was determined by lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC) assays. Micronucleus (MN) test of erythrocytes and comet assay of liver cells confirmed genotoxicity. Histopathology of the liver, kidney and brain of affected fishes was distorted significantly with its reference fishes thereby affecting the quality and quantity of these fish stocks. This raises a serious concern as these fishes are consumed by the local population which would ultimately affect human health.