Vitamin D deficiency in adult fracture patients: prevalence and risk factors.Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2016 Jun; 42(3):369-78.EJ
Although vitamin D levels are not routinely monitored in outpatient fracture patients, identification of fracture patients with a deficient vitamin D status may be clinically relevant because of the potential role of vitamin D in fracture healing. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in non-operatively treated adult fracture patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Vitamin D levels were determined in a cross-sectional study of adult patients, who were treated non-operatively for a fracture of the upper or lower extremity in the outpatient clinic of a level 1 trauma center, during one calendar year. Potential risk factors for (severe) vitamin D deficiency were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
A total of 208 men and 319 women with a mean age of 49.7 years (SD 19.9) were included. In this population, 71 % had a serum calcidiol <75 nmol/L, 40 % were vitamin D deficient (serum calcidiol <50 nmol/L) and 11 % were severely vitamin D deficient (serum calcidiol <25 nmol/L). Smoking and season (winter and spring) were independent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. An increasing age, a non-Caucasian skin type, winter and smoking were identified as independent risk factors for severe vitamin D deficiency. The use of vitamin D, alcohol consumption and higher average daily sun exposure were independent protective factors against (severe) vitamin D deficiency.
Given the potential role of vitamin D in fracture healing, clinicians treating adult fracture patients should be aware of the frequent presence of vitamin D deficiency during the winter, especially in smoking and non-Caucasian patients. Research on the effect of vitamin D deficiency or supplementation on fracture healing is needed, before suggesting routine monitoring or supplementation.