Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome due to donor-specific HLA-antibodies.Tissue Antigens. 2015 Sep; 86(3):178-85.TA
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is a limiting factor for long-term survival in lung transplant recipients. Donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-antibodies (DSA) have been suggested as potential risk factors for CLAD. However, their impact on clinical outcome following lung transplantation remains controversial. We performed a single-center study of 120 lung transplant recipients transplanted between 2006 and 2011. Patient sera were investigated before and after transplantation. The sera were screened by means of Luminex(®) technology (Luminex Inc., Austin, TX, USA) for IgG-HLA-class I and class II antibodies (ab). Using single antigen beads, DSA were identified and correlated retrospectively with clinical parameters. After transplantation 39 out of 120 patients (32.5%) were positive for HLA-ab. The incidence of de novo DSA formation was 27 of 120 patients (22.5%). Eleven of 27 (41%) of de novo DSA-positive patients developed BOS compared to 13 of 93 (14%) DSA-negative patients (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the generation of de novo DSA was independently associated with the development of BOS in multivariable analysis [hazard ration (HR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-6.08; p = 0.046). Our results indicate that de novo DSA are associated with the development of BOS after lung transplantation. Monitoring of HLA-ab after transplantation is useful for identifying high-risk patients and offers an opportunity for early therapeutic intervention.