Treatment options for dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease and for protection from contrast-induced nephropathy.Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2015; 13(9):1059-66.ER
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent worldwide and represents a major cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidemia is present in most patients with CKD and further worsens CKD, creating a vicious cycle. The treatment of CKD-related dyslipidemia has been a controversial topic. The use of statins is recommended in all stages of CKD, but it appears to reduce cardiovascular and renal events only in the early CKD stages, up to stage 3. The use of atorvastatin has proven very beneficial; thus, the earliest we start statin treatment, the better for the patient. Atorvastatin and pitavastatin do not need dose adjustments at any level of renal function. Fibrates can be administered in mixed hyperlipidemia, combined with statins in early CKD stages. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful for treating hypertriglyceridemia in CKD. Antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 hold promise for a better control of dyslipidemia and a greater reduction of cardiovascular risk.