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Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes.
Ann Bot. 2015 Sep; 116(4):627-36.AB

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated.

SCOPE AND RESULTS

Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits.

CONCLUSIONS

Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of expanding their shelf-life after harvest and in maintaining their nutritional value.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, Apartado 419, 18080 Granada, Spain and josemanuel.palma@eez.csic.es.Group of Abiotic Stress, Production and Quality, Department of Biology of Stress and Plant Pathology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Campus Universitario Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.Group of Abiotic Stress, Production and Quality, Department of Biology of Stress and Plant Pathology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Campus Universitario Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, Apartado 419, 18080 Granada, Spain and.Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, Apartado 419, 18080 Granada, Spain and.Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, Apartado 419, 18080 Granada, Spain and.Group of Abiotic Stress, Production and Quality, Department of Biology of Stress and Plant Pathology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Campus Universitario Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26220658

Citation

Palma, José M., et al. "Physiology of Pepper Fruit and the Metabolism of Antioxidants: Chloroplasts, Mitochondria and Peroxisomes." Annals of Botany, vol. 116, no. 4, 2015, pp. 627-36.
Palma JM, Sevilla F, Jiménez A, et al. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes. Ann Bot. 2015;116(4):627-36.
Palma, J. M., Sevilla, F., Jiménez, A., del Río, L. A., Corpas, F. J., Álvarez de Morales, P., & Camejo, D. M. (2015). Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes. Annals of Botany, 116(4), 627-36. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcv121
Palma JM, et al. Physiology of Pepper Fruit and the Metabolism of Antioxidants: Chloroplasts, Mitochondria and Peroxisomes. Ann Bot. 2015;116(4):627-36. PubMed PMID: 26220658.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes. AU - Palma,José M, AU - Sevilla,Francisca, AU - Jiménez,Ana, AU - del Río,Luis A, AU - Corpas,Francisco J, AU - Álvarez de Morales,Paz, AU - Camejo,Daymi M, Y1 - 2015/07/28/ PY - 2015/04/15/received PY - 2015/06/25/accepted PY - 2015/7/30/entrez PY - 2015/7/30/pubmed PY - 2016/6/18/medline KW - Antioxidants KW - Capsicum annuum KW - NADPH KW - ascorbate KW - chloroplasts KW - low temperature KW - mitochondria KW - pepper fruit KW - peroxisomes KW - proteomics KW - reactive oxygen and nitrogen species KW - ripening KW - superoxide dismutase SP - 627 EP - 36 JF - Annals of botany JO - Ann Bot VL - 116 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. SCOPE AND RESULTS: Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of expanding their shelf-life after harvest and in maintaining their nutritional value. SN - 1095-8290 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26220658/Physiology_of_pepper_fruit_and_the_metabolism_of_antioxidants:_chloroplasts_mitochondria_and_peroxisomes_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/aob/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/aob/mcv121 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -