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Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Jul 30; 15:258.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Analysis and extraction of plant matrices are important processes for the development, modernization, and quality control of herbal formulations. Response surface methodology is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques that are used to optimize the range of variables in various experimental processes to reduce the number of experimental runs, cost , and time, compared to other methods.

METHODS

Response surface methodology was applied for optimizing reflux extraction conditions for achieving high 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents, and high antioxidant activity in Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade . The two-factor central composite design was employed to determine the effects of two independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1: 50-80 °C) and time (X2: 2-4 h), on the properties of the extracts. The 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the rhizome extracts was determined by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Anticancer activity of optimized extracts against HeLa cancer cell lines was measured using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay.

RESULTS

Increasing the extraction temperature and time induced significant response of the variables. The optimum extraction condition for all responses was at 76.9 °C for 3.4 h. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity were 2.89 mg/g DW, 1.85 mg/g DW, and 84.3%, respectively. 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were extracted under optimized condition to check the viability of the models. The values were 2.92 and 1.88 mg/g DW, and 84.0% for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the models employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction condition. With optimizing of reflux extraction anticancer activity of extracts against HeLa cancer cells enhanced about 16.8%. The half inhibition concentration (IC50) value of optimized and unoptimized extract was found at concentration of 20.9 and 38.4 μg/mL respectively. Optimized extract showed more distinct anticancer activities against HeLa cancer cells in a concentration of 40 μg/mL (P < 0.01) without toxicity to normal cells.

CONCLUSIONS

The results indicated that the pharmaceutical quality of ginger could be improved significantly by optimizing of extraction process using response surface methodology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. alighasemzadeh@upm.edu.my.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Hawazej@upm.edu.my.Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. asmah@upm.edu.my.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26223685

Citation

Ghasemzadeh, Ali, et al. "Optimization Protocol for the Extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol From Zingiber Officinale Var. Rubrum Theilade and Improving Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity Using Response Surface Methodology." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, 2015, p. 258.
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A. Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:258.
Ghasemzadeh, A., Jaafar, H. Z., & Rahmat, A. (2015). Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 258. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0718-0
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A. Optimization Protocol for the Extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol From Zingiber Officinale Var. Rubrum Theilade and Improving Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity Using Response Surface Methodology. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Jul 30;15:258. PubMed PMID: 26223685.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology. AU - Ghasemzadeh,Ali, AU - Jaafar,Hawa Z E, AU - Rahmat,Asmah, Y1 - 2015/07/30/ PY - 2015/04/08/received PY - 2015/06/11/accepted PY - 2015/7/31/entrez PY - 2015/8/1/pubmed PY - 2016/2/2/medline SP - 258 EP - 258 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Analysis and extraction of plant matrices are important processes for the development, modernization, and quality control of herbal formulations. Response surface methodology is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques that are used to optimize the range of variables in various experimental processes to reduce the number of experimental runs, cost , and time, compared to other methods. METHODS: Response surface methodology was applied for optimizing reflux extraction conditions for achieving high 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents, and high antioxidant activity in Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade . The two-factor central composite design was employed to determine the effects of two independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1: 50-80 °C) and time (X2: 2-4 h), on the properties of the extracts. The 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the rhizome extracts was determined by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Anticancer activity of optimized extracts against HeLa cancer cell lines was measured using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. RESULTS: Increasing the extraction temperature and time induced significant response of the variables. The optimum extraction condition for all responses was at 76.9 °C for 3.4 h. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity were 2.89 mg/g DW, 1.85 mg/g DW, and 84.3%, respectively. 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were extracted under optimized condition to check the viability of the models. The values were 2.92 and 1.88 mg/g DW, and 84.0% for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the models employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction condition. With optimizing of reflux extraction anticancer activity of extracts against HeLa cancer cells enhanced about 16.8%. The half inhibition concentration (IC50) value of optimized and unoptimized extract was found at concentration of 20.9 and 38.4 μg/mL respectively. Optimized extract showed more distinct anticancer activities against HeLa cancer cells in a concentration of 40 μg/mL (P < 0.01) without toxicity to normal cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the pharmaceutical quality of ginger could be improved significantly by optimizing of extraction process using response surface methodology. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26223685/Optimization_protocol_for_the_extraction_of_6_gingerol_and_6_shogaol_from_Zingiber_officinale_var__rubrum_Theilade_and_improving_antioxidant_and_anticancer_activity_using_response_surface_methodology_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0718-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -