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Home environment and indoor air pollution exposure in an African birth cohort study.
Sci Total Environ 2015; 536:362-367ST

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Household indoor air pollution (IAP) is a global health problem and a risk factor for childhood respiratory disease; the leading cause of mortality in African children. This study aimed to describe the home environment and measure IAP in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), an African birth cohort.

METHODS

An antenatal home visit to assess the home environment and measure IAP (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) was done on pregnant women enrolled to the DCHS, in a low-socioeconomic, peri-urban South African community. Urine cotinine measured maternal tobacco smoking and exposure. Dwellings were categorised according to 6 household dimensions. Univariate and multivariate analysis explored associations between home environment, seasons and IAP levels measured.

RESULTS

633 home visits were completed, with IAP measured in 90% of homes. Almost a third of participants were of the lowest socio-economic status and the majority of homes (65%) lacked 2 or more of the dwelling category dimensions. Most households had electricity (92%), however, fossil fuels were still used for cooking (19%) and heating (15%) in homes. Antenatal maternal smoking prevalence was 31%; 44% had passive smoke exposure. Of IAP measured, benzene (VOC) was significantly above ambient standards with median 5.6 μg/m3 (IQR 2.6-17.1). There were significant associations between the use of fossil fuels for cooking and increased benzene [OR 3.4 (95% CI 2.1-5.4)], carbon monoxide [OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.0)] and nitrogen dioxide [OR 18.6 (95% CI 3.9-88.9)] levels. A significant seasonal association was found with higher IAP levels in winter.

CONCLUSION

In this low-socioeconomic African community, multiple environmental factors and pollutants, with the potential to affect child health, were identified. Measurement of IAP in a resource-limited setting is feasible. Recognising and quantifying these risk factors is important in effecting public health policy changes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Electronic address: Aneesa.vanker@uct.ac.za.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Electronic address: Barnett.whitney@gmail.com.Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, Room 5.48, Level 5, Falmouth building, UCT Medical School, University of Cape Town, 7700, South Africa. Electronic address: pm.nduru@uct.ac.za.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Avenue, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa. Electronic address: rpg1@sun.ac.za.Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, and Children's Health and Environment Program, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Foundation Building, Royal Children's Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia. Electronic address: p.sly@uq.edu.au.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Electronic address: heather.zar@uct.ac.za.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26231768

Citation

Vanker, Aneesa, et al. "Home Environment and Indoor Air Pollution Exposure in an African Birth Cohort Study." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 536, 2015, pp. 362-367.
Vanker A, Barnett W, Nduru PM, et al. Home environment and indoor air pollution exposure in an African birth cohort study. Sci Total Environ. 2015;536:362-367.
Vanker, A., Barnett, W., Nduru, P. M., Gie, R. P., Sly, P. D., & Zar, H. J. (2015). Home environment and indoor air pollution exposure in an African birth cohort study. The Science of the Total Environment, 536, pp. 362-367. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.136.
Vanker A, et al. Home Environment and Indoor Air Pollution Exposure in an African Birth Cohort Study. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Dec 1;536:362-367. PubMed PMID: 26231768.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Home environment and indoor air pollution exposure in an African birth cohort study. AU - Vanker,Aneesa, AU - Barnett,Whitney, AU - Nduru,Polite M, AU - Gie,Robert P, AU - Sly,Peter D, AU - Zar,Heather J, Y1 - 2015/07/28/ PY - 2015/03/25/received PY - 2015/06/08/revised PY - 2015/06/26/accepted PY - 2015/8/2/entrez PY - 2015/8/2/pubmed PY - 2016/6/11/medline KW - African birth cohort KW - Environmental health KW - Indoor air pollution KW - Maternal and child health KW - Public health SP - 362 EP - 367 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 536 N2 - BACKGROUND: Household indoor air pollution (IAP) is a global health problem and a risk factor for childhood respiratory disease; the leading cause of mortality in African children. This study aimed to describe the home environment and measure IAP in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), an African birth cohort. METHODS: An antenatal home visit to assess the home environment and measure IAP (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) was done on pregnant women enrolled to the DCHS, in a low-socioeconomic, peri-urban South African community. Urine cotinine measured maternal tobacco smoking and exposure. Dwellings were categorised according to 6 household dimensions. Univariate and multivariate analysis explored associations between home environment, seasons and IAP levels measured. RESULTS: 633 home visits were completed, with IAP measured in 90% of homes. Almost a third of participants were of the lowest socio-economic status and the majority of homes (65%) lacked 2 or more of the dwelling category dimensions. Most households had electricity (92%), however, fossil fuels were still used for cooking (19%) and heating (15%) in homes. Antenatal maternal smoking prevalence was 31%; 44% had passive smoke exposure. Of IAP measured, benzene (VOC) was significantly above ambient standards with median 5.6 μg/m3 (IQR 2.6-17.1). There were significant associations between the use of fossil fuels for cooking and increased benzene [OR 3.4 (95% CI 2.1-5.4)], carbon monoxide [OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.0)] and nitrogen dioxide [OR 18.6 (95% CI 3.9-88.9)] levels. A significant seasonal association was found with higher IAP levels in winter. CONCLUSION: In this low-socioeconomic African community, multiple environmental factors and pollutants, with the potential to affect child health, were identified. Measurement of IAP in a resource-limited setting is feasible. Recognising and quantifying these risk factors is important in effecting public health policy changes. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26231768/Home_environment_and_indoor_air_pollution_exposure_in_an_African_birth_cohort_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(15)30306-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -