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Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15.
Addiction. 2015 Dec; 110(12):1941-50.A

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Between 2000 and 2005 the average percentage of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana as sold in Dutch coffeeshops has increased substantially; the potency of domestic products (Nederwiet and Nederhasj) has particularly increased. In contrast with imported marijuana, Nederwiet hardly contained any cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid that is thought to offset some of the adverse effects of THC. In 2005, the THC content in Nederwiet was significantly lower than in 2004. This study investigates the further decrease or increase of cannabinoids in these cannabis products.

METHODS

From 2005 to 2015 five different cannabis products were bought anonymously in 50 coffeeshops that were selected randomly each year from all coffeeshops in the Netherlands. A total of 2126 cannabis samples were bought, consisting of 664 Nederwiet samples (most popular), 537 Nederwiet samples (supposed strongest varieties), 183 imported herbal cannabis samples, 140 samples of cannabis resin made of Nederwiet and 602 samples of imported cannabis resin. All samples were analysed chemically for their THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) content.

RESULTS

Between 2005 and 2015, the mean potencies of the most popular and the strongest Nederwiet and of imported cannabis resin were 16.0±4.0%, 17.0±3,9% and 16.5±6.3%, respectively. Imported herbal cannabis (6.5±3.5%) and cannabis resin made from Nederwiet (30.2±16.4%) contained, respectively, less (β=-10.0, P<0.001) and more (β=13.7, P<0.001) THC than imported cannabis resin. Linear regression models were used to study the trends in THC of the different cannabis products over time. A marginal, but significant (P<0.001), overall decline of THC per year of 0.22% was found in all cannabis products. However, no significant difference was found between the five products in the THC linear trajectories across time. Of all the cannabis products, only imported cannabis resin contained a relatively high CBD/THC ratio (median 0.42).

CONCLUSION

The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of the most popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands has decreased slightly since 2005. The popular Nederwiet type still has a relatively high THC to cannabidiol ratio.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Faculty of Management, Science and Technology, School of Science, Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, the Netherlands.Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, the Netherlands.Academic Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Academic Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26234170

Citation

Niesink, Raymond J M., et al. "Potency Trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and Cannabinol in Cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 110, no. 12, 2015, pp. 1941-50.
Niesink RJ, Rigter S, Koeter MW, et al. Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15. Addiction. 2015;110(12):1941-50.
Niesink, R. J., Rigter, S., Koeter, M. W., & Brunt, T. M. (2015). Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 110(12), 1941-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13082
Niesink RJ, et al. Potency Trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol and Cannabinol in Cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15. Addiction. 2015;110(12):1941-50. PubMed PMID: 26234170.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15. AU - Niesink,Raymond J M, AU - Rigter,Sander, AU - Koeter,Maarten W, AU - Brunt,Tibor M, Y1 - 2015/09/18/ PY - 2015/02/03/received PY - 2015/04/04/revised PY - 2015/07/29/accepted PY - 2015/8/4/entrez PY - 2015/8/4/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - Cannabidiol KW - Nederwiet KW - cannabinol KW - hashish KW - herbal cannabis KW - marijuana KW - potency KW - Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol SP - 1941 EP - 50 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 110 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Between 2000 and 2005 the average percentage of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana as sold in Dutch coffeeshops has increased substantially; the potency of domestic products (Nederwiet and Nederhasj) has particularly increased. In contrast with imported marijuana, Nederwiet hardly contained any cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid that is thought to offset some of the adverse effects of THC. In 2005, the THC content in Nederwiet was significantly lower than in 2004. This study investigates the further decrease or increase of cannabinoids in these cannabis products. METHODS: From 2005 to 2015 five different cannabis products were bought anonymously in 50 coffeeshops that were selected randomly each year from all coffeeshops in the Netherlands. A total of 2126 cannabis samples were bought, consisting of 664 Nederwiet samples (most popular), 537 Nederwiet samples (supposed strongest varieties), 183 imported herbal cannabis samples, 140 samples of cannabis resin made of Nederwiet and 602 samples of imported cannabis resin. All samples were analysed chemically for their THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) content. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, the mean potencies of the most popular and the strongest Nederwiet and of imported cannabis resin were 16.0±4.0%, 17.0±3,9% and 16.5±6.3%, respectively. Imported herbal cannabis (6.5±3.5%) and cannabis resin made from Nederwiet (30.2±16.4%) contained, respectively, less (β=-10.0, P<0.001) and more (β=13.7, P<0.001) THC than imported cannabis resin. Linear regression models were used to study the trends in THC of the different cannabis products over time. A marginal, but significant (P<0.001), overall decline of THC per year of 0.22% was found in all cannabis products. However, no significant difference was found between the five products in the THC linear trajectories across time. Of all the cannabis products, only imported cannabis resin contained a relatively high CBD/THC ratio (median 0.42). CONCLUSION: The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of the most popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands has decreased slightly since 2005. The popular Nederwiet type still has a relatively high THC to cannabidiol ratio. SN - 1360-0443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26234170/Potency_trends_of_Δ9_tetrahydrocannabinol_cannabidiol_and_cannabinol_in_cannabis_in_the_Netherlands:_2005_15_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13082 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -