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Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equol-producing capacity of individuals.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention.

DESIGN

The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with (41)Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary (41)Ca:calcium.

RESULTS

Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4% and 7.6% (P < 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3% (95% CI: 7.1%, 22.7%; P = 0.0014). The most-effective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 10.2%; P < 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4% (95% CI: 0.5%, 6.2%; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers.

CONCLUSION

Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed isoflavones in their natural ratios are more effective than enriched genistein. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00244907.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences.

    ,

    Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences.

    ,

    Department of Statistics, College of Science, and.

    ,

    Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences.

    ,

    Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory, Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN;

    ,

    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; and.

    ,

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

    Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, weavercm@purdue.edu.

    Source

    MeSH

    Administration, Oral
    Aged
    Bone and Bones
    Calcium
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dietary Supplements
    Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
    Equol
    Female
    Genistein
    Humans
    Isoflavones
    Middle Aged
    Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
    Phytoestrogens
    Postmenopause
    Risedronic Acid
    Soybeans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26245807

    Citation

    Pawlowski, Jessica W., et al. "Impact of Equol-producing Capacity and Soy-isoflavone Profiles of Supplements On Bone Calcium Retention in Postmenopausal Women: a Randomized Crossover Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 3, 2015, pp. 695-703.
    Pawlowski JW, Martin BR, McCabe GP, et al. Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(3):695-703.
    Pawlowski, J. W., Martin, B. R., McCabe, G. P., McCabe, L., Jackson, G. S., Peacock, M., ... Weaver, C. M. (2015). Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(3), pp. 695-703. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.093906.
    Pawlowski JW, et al. Impact of Equol-producing Capacity and Soy-isoflavone Profiles of Supplements On Bone Calcium Retention in Postmenopausal Women: a Randomized Crossover Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(3):695-703. PubMed PMID: 26245807.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial. AU - Pawlowski,Jessica W, AU - Martin,Berdine R, AU - McCabe,George P, AU - McCabe,Linda, AU - Jackson,George S, AU - Peacock,Munro, AU - Barnes,Stephen, AU - Weaver,Connie M, Y1 - 2015/08/05/ PY - 2014/07/30/received PY - 2015/07/10/accepted PY - 2015/8/7/entrez PY - 2015/8/8/pubmed PY - 2015/12/15/medline KW - 41Ca KW - bone resorption KW - equol KW - genistein KW - postmenopausal women KW - soy isoflavones SP - 695 EP - 703 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 102 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equol-producing capacity of individuals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention. DESIGN: The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with (41)Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary (41)Ca:calcium. RESULTS: Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4% and 7.6% (P < 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3% (95% CI: 7.1%, 22.7%; P = 0.0014). The most-effective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 10.2%; P < 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4% (95% CI: 0.5%, 6.2%; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers. CONCLUSION: Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed isoflavones in their natural ratios are more effective than enriched genistein. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00244907. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26245807/Impact_of_equol_producing_capacity_and_soy_isoflavone_profiles_of_supplements_on_bone_calcium_retention_in_postmenopausal_women:_a_randomized_crossover_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.093906 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -