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Chemical and microbial components of urban air PM cause seasonal variation of toxicological activity.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Sep; 40(2):375-87.ET

Abstract

The chemical and microbial composition of urban air particulate matter (PM) displays seasonal variation that may affect its harmfulness on human health. We studied the in vitro inflammatory and cellular metabolic activity/cytotoxicity of urban air particulate samples collected in four size-ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1, PM1-0.2, PM0.2) during four seasons in relatively clean urban environment in Helsinki, Finland. The composition of the same samples were analyzed, including ions, elements, PAH compounds and endotoxins. In addition, microbial contribution on the detected responses was studied by inhibiting the endotoxin-induced responses with Polymyxin B both in the PM samples and by two different bacterial strains representing Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was exposed to the size segregated particulate samples as well as to microbe samples for 24h and markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The toxicological responses were dependent on the dose as well as size range of the particles, PM10-2.5 being the most potent and smaller size ranges having significantly smaller responses. Samples collected during spring and autumn had in most cases the highest inflammatory activity. Soil components and other non-exhaust particulate emissions from road traffic correlated with inflammatory responses in coarse particles. Instead, PAH-compounds and K(+) had negative associations with the particle-induced inflammatory responses in fine particles, suggesting the role of incomplete biomass combustion. Endotoxin content was the highest in PM10-2.5 samples and correspondingly, the largest decrease in the responses by Polymyxin B was seen with the very same samples. We found also that inhibitory effect of Polymyxin B was not completely specific for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, in addition to endotoxin, also other microbial components may have a significant effect on the toxicological responses by ambient particulate matter.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: Pasi.Jalava@uef.fi.University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, PO Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland.Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, PO Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland.National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, PO Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio, Finland.University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, PO Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio, Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26245811

Citation

Jalava, Pasi I., et al. "Chemical and Microbial Components of Urban Air PM Cause Seasonal Variation of Toxicological Activity." Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 40, no. 2, 2015, pp. 375-87.
Jalava PI, Happo MS, Huttunen K, et al. Chemical and microbial components of urban air PM cause seasonal variation of toxicological activity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;40(2):375-87.
Jalava, P. I., Happo, M. S., Huttunen, K., Sillanpää, M., Hillamo, R., Salonen, R. O., & Hirvonen, M. R. (2015). Chemical and microbial components of urban air PM cause seasonal variation of toxicological activity. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 40(2), 375-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2015.06.023
Jalava PI, et al. Chemical and Microbial Components of Urban Air PM Cause Seasonal Variation of Toxicological Activity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;40(2):375-87. PubMed PMID: 26245811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chemical and microbial components of urban air PM cause seasonal variation of toxicological activity. AU - Jalava,Pasi I, AU - Happo,Mikko S, AU - Huttunen,Kati, AU - Sillanpää,Markus, AU - Hillamo,Risto, AU - Salonen,Raimo O, AU - Hirvonen,Maija-Riitta, Y1 - 2015/07/03/ PY - 2015/06/17/received PY - 2015/06/22/accepted PY - 2015/8/7/entrez PY - 2015/8/8/pubmed PY - 2016/6/30/medline KW - Emission sources KW - Endotoxin KW - Inflammation KW - Particulate matter KW - Road dust KW - Seasonal variation SP - 375 EP - 87 JF - Environmental toxicology and pharmacology JO - Environ Toxicol Pharmacol VL - 40 IS - 2 N2 - The chemical and microbial composition of urban air particulate matter (PM) displays seasonal variation that may affect its harmfulness on human health. We studied the in vitro inflammatory and cellular metabolic activity/cytotoxicity of urban air particulate samples collected in four size-ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1, PM1-0.2, PM0.2) during four seasons in relatively clean urban environment in Helsinki, Finland. The composition of the same samples were analyzed, including ions, elements, PAH compounds and endotoxins. In addition, microbial contribution on the detected responses was studied by inhibiting the endotoxin-induced responses with Polymyxin B both in the PM samples and by two different bacterial strains representing Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was exposed to the size segregated particulate samples as well as to microbe samples for 24h and markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The toxicological responses were dependent on the dose as well as size range of the particles, PM10-2.5 being the most potent and smaller size ranges having significantly smaller responses. Samples collected during spring and autumn had in most cases the highest inflammatory activity. Soil components and other non-exhaust particulate emissions from road traffic correlated with inflammatory responses in coarse particles. Instead, PAH-compounds and K(+) had negative associations with the particle-induced inflammatory responses in fine particles, suggesting the role of incomplete biomass combustion. Endotoxin content was the highest in PM10-2.5 samples and correspondingly, the largest decrease in the responses by Polymyxin B was seen with the very same samples. We found also that inhibitory effect of Polymyxin B was not completely specific for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, in addition to endotoxin, also other microbial components may have a significant effect on the toxicological responses by ambient particulate matter. SN - 1872-7077 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26245811/Chemical_and_microbial_components_of_urban_air_PM_cause_seasonal_variation_of_toxicological_activity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1382-6689(15)30024-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -