NADPH oxidase mediated maneb- and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rat polymorphs: Crosstalk with mitochondrial dysfunction.Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015 Sep; 123:74-86.PB
Oxidative stress is a key factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and impaired mitochondrion regulate oxidative stress-mediated maneb (MB)- and paraquat (PQ)-induced Parkinsonism. However, their contribution in the MB- and PQ-induced toxicity in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) is still elusive. The study investigated the role of NADPH oxidase and mitochondria in MB- and/or PQ-induced oxidative stress in the PMNs and the crossing point between the two. Animals were treated with MB and/or PQ for 1-3 weeks along with respective controls. In a few sets of experiments, rats were treated with/without NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, an hour prior to MB and/or PQ treatment. PMNs of MB and/or PQ treated animals were also treated with/without carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to assess the role of the mitochondria in superoxide and total free radical productions. MB and/or PQ were found to increase the level of total reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide radicals, catalytic activity and expression of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD1/2) and mitochondrial ROS content in a time dependent manner. Conversely, catalase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were attenuated. Apocynin alleviated MB- and/or PQ-induced changes in total ROS, superoxide radicals, expression/catalytic activity of NADPH oxidase and SOD1/2 along with the mitochondrial ROS and membrane potential. CCCP also inhibited ROS and superoxide levels in the PMNs of MB and/or PQ-treated animals. The results demonstrate the involvement of NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in MB and PQ-induced oxidative stress in PMNs and a plausible crosstalk between them.