Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate the IL-1β-induced proinflammatory response in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells.Pediatr Res. 2015 Dec; 78(6):626-33.PR
Evidence suggests that excessive inflammation of the immature intestine may predispose premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in primary culture.
Human fetal IEC in culture were derived from a healthy fetal small intestine (H4) or resected small intestine of a neonate with NEC (NEC-IEC). Intestinal cell lines Caco2 and NCM460 in culture were used as models for mature IEC. IEC in culture were pretreated with 100 µmol/l palmitic acid (PAL), DHA, EPA, ARA, or ARA+DHA for 48 h and then stimulated with proinflammatory IL-1β.
DHA significantly attenuated IL-1β induced proinflammatory IL-8 and IL-6 protein and mRNA in fetal H4, NEC-IEC, and mature Caco2, NCM460 IEC, compared to control and PAL treatment. DHA downregulated IL-1R1 (IL-1β receptor) and NFk β1 mRNA expression in fetal and adult IEC. ARA had potent anti-inflammatory effects with lower IL-8 and IL-6 (protein and mRNA) in fetal H4 but not in NEC-IEC or adult IEC.
The present study provides evidence that DHA and ARA may have important anti-inflammatory functions for prevention of NEC in premature infants.