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Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Aug 14; 12(8):9589-602.IJ

Abstract

The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g. CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for 7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag(+) ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. mariajribeiro@ua.pt.Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. vmaria@ua.pt.Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, Silkeborg DK-8600, Denmark. jsf@bios.au.dk.Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal. mjamorim@ua.pt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26287225

Citation

Ribeiro, Maria J., et al. "Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused By Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) Are Different From Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 12, no. 8, 2015, pp. 9589-602.
Ribeiro MJ, Maria VL, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, et al. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(8):9589-602.
Ribeiro, M. J., Maria, V. L., Scott-Fordsmand, J. J., & Amorim, M. J. (2015). Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(8), 9589-602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809589
Ribeiro MJ, et al. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused By Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) Are Different From Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Aug 14;12(8):9589-602. PubMed PMID: 26287225.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus. AU - Ribeiro,Maria J, AU - Maria,Vera L, AU - Scott-Fordsmand,Janeck J, AU - Amorim,Mónica J B, Y1 - 2015/08/14/ PY - 2015/06/30/received PY - 2015/08/10/accepted PY - 2015/8/20/entrez PY - 2015/8/20/pubmed PY - 2016/3/5/medline KW - antioxidant system KW - lipid damage KW - metallothionein KW - reactive oxygen species KW - soil SP - 9589 EP - 602 JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 12 IS - 8 N2 - The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g. CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for 7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag(+) ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26287225/Oxidative_Stress_Mechanisms_Caused_by_Ag_Nanoparticles__NM300K__are_Different_from_Those_of_AgNO3:_Effects_in_the_Soil_Invertebrate_Enchytraeus_Crypticus_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph120809589 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -