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Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?

Abstract

It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant's gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc.) could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections) in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Microbial Ecology, Nutrition & Health Research Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustín Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. mccenit81@gmail.com. Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Peset University Hospital, Avda. Gaspar Aguilar, 80, 46017 Valencia, Spain. mccenit81@gmail.com.

    ,

    Microbial Ecology, Nutrition & Health Research Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustín Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. m.olivares@iata.csic.es.

    ,

    Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Peset University Hospital, Avda. Gaspar Aguilar, 80, 46017 Valencia, Spain. pilar.codoner@uv.es. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia, Av Blasco Ibáñez, 13, 46010 Valencia, Spain. pilar.codoner@uv.es.

    Microbial Ecology, Nutrition & Health Research Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustín Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. yolsanz@iata.csic.es.

    Source

    Nutrients 7:8 2015 Aug 17 pg 6900-23

    MeSH

    Biological Evolution
    Celiac Disease
    Diet, Gluten-Free
    Dysbiosis
    Epigenesis, Genetic
    Gastrointestinal Microbiome
    Glutens
    Host-Pathogen Interactions
    Humans
    Intestines
    Probiotics
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26287240

    Citation

    Cenit, María Carmen, et al. "Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution?" Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 8, 2015, pp. 6900-23.
    Cenit MC, Olivares M, Codoñer-Franch P, et al. Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution? Nutrients. 2015;7(8):6900-23.
    Cenit, M. C., Olivares, M., Codoñer-Franch, P., & Sanz, Y. (2015). Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution? Nutrients, 7(8), pp. 6900-23. doi:10.3390/nu7085314.
    Cenit MC, et al. Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution. Nutrients. 2015 Aug 17;7(8):6900-23. PubMed PMID: 26287240.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Intestinal Microbiota and Celiac Disease: Cause, Consequence or Co-Evolution? AU - Cenit,María Carmen, AU - Olivares,Marta, AU - Codoñer-Franch,Pilar, AU - Sanz,Yolanda, Y1 - 2015/08/17/ PY - 2015/05/28/received PY - 2015/08/03/revised PY - 2015/08/06/accepted PY - 2015/8/20/entrez PY - 2015/8/20/pubmed PY - 2016/5/20/medline KW - celiac disease KW - dysbiosis KW - gluten-free diet KW - microbiota SP - 6900 EP - 23 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 7 IS - 8 N2 - It is widely recognized that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation in numerous chronic conditions. Most studies report intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease (CD) patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), compared to healthy controls. CD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are also known to have a different microbiota compared to patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls, suggesting that the microbiota is involved in disease manifestation. Furthermore, a dysbiotic microbiota seems to be associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated CD patients, suggesting its pathogenic implication in these particular cases. GFD per se influences gut microbiota composition, and thus constitutes an inevitable confounding factor in studies conducted in CD patients. To improve our understanding of whether intestinal dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of disease, prospective studies in healthy infants at family risk of CD are underway. These studies have revealed that the CD host genotype selects for the early colonizers of the infant's gut, which together with environmental factors (e.g., breast-feeding, antibiotics, etc.) could influence the development of oral tolerance to gluten. Indeed, some CD genes and/or their altered expression play a role in bacterial colonization and sensing. In turn, intestinal dysbiosis could promote an abnormal response to gluten or other environmental CD-promoting factors (e.g., infections) in predisposed individuals. Here, we review the current knowledge of host-microbe interactions and how host genetics/epigenetics and environmental factors shape gut microbiota and may influence disease risk. We also summarize the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms of action of the intestinal microbiota and specific components that affect CD pathogenesis. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26287240/Intestinal_Microbiota_and_Celiac_Disease:_Cause_Consequence_or_Co_Evolution L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu7085314 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -