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Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration.
J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Nov; 98(5):713-25.JL

Abstract

Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom.Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom heping.xu@qub.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26292978

Citation

Chen, Mei, and Heping Xu. "Parainflammation, Chronic Inflammation, and Age-related Macular Degeneration." Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 98, no. 5, 2015, pp. 713-25.
Chen M, Xu H. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration. J Leukoc Biol. 2015;98(5):713-25.
Chen, M., & Xu, H. (2015). Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 98(5), 713-25. https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.3RI0615-239R
Chen M, Xu H. Parainflammation, Chronic Inflammation, and Age-related Macular Degeneration. J Leukoc Biol. 2015;98(5):713-25. PubMed PMID: 26292978.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Parainflammation, chronic inflammation, and age-related macular degeneration. AU - Chen,Mei, AU - Xu,Heping, Y1 - 2015/08/20/ PY - 2015/06/02/received PY - 2015/07/28/accepted PY - 2015/8/22/entrez PY - 2015/8/22/pubmed PY - 2016/2/9/medline KW - blood-retina barrier KW - complement KW - immune privilege KW - microglia KW - retina SP - 713 EP - 25 JF - Journal of leukocyte biology JO - J Leukoc Biol VL - 98 IS - 5 N2 - Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration. SN - 1938-3673 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26292978/Parainflammation_chronic_inflammation_and_age_related_macular_degeneration_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.3RI0615-239R DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -