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In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects on Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2015; 7(35):19672-83AA

Abstract

Post-electrospinning treatment is a facile process to improve the properties of electrospun nanofibers for various applications. This technique is commonly used when direct electrospinning is not a suitable option to fabricate a nonwoven membrane of the desired polymer in a preferred morphology. In this study, a representative natural-synthetic hybrid of cellulose acetate (CA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) in different ratios was fabricated using an electrospinning process, and CA in the hybrid fiber was transformed into cellulose (CL) by post-electrospinning treatment via alkaline saponification. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the effects of polymer composition and subsequent saponification on the morphology of the nanofibers. Increasing the PCL content in the PCL/CA blend solution caused a gradual decrease in viscosity, resulting in smoother and more uniform fibers. The saponification of fibers lead to pronounced changes in the physicochemical properties. The crystallinity of the PCL in the composite fiber was varied according to the composition of the component polymers. The water contact angle was considerably decreased (from 124° to less than 20°), and the mechanical properties were greatly enhanced (Young's Modulus was improved by ≈20-30 fold, tensile strength by 3-4 fold, and tensile stress by ≈2-4 fold) compared to those of PCL and PCL/CA membranes. Regeneration of cellulose chains in the nanofibers increased the number of hydroxyl groups, which increased the hydrogen bonding, thereby improving the mechanical properties and wettability of the composite nanofibers. The improved wettability and presence of surface functional groups enhanced the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals throughout the matrix when exposed to a simulated body fluid solution. Experimental results of cell viability assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that the fabricated nanofibrous membranes have excellent ability for MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and growth. Given the versatility and widespread use of cellulose-synthetic hybrid systems in the construction of tissue-engineered scaffolds, this work provides a novel strategy to fabricate the biopolymer-based materials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.No affiliation info availableDepartment of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea. Department of Convergence Technology Engineering, College of engineering, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea. Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea. Eco-friendly machine parts design research center, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26295953

Citation

Joshi, Mahesh Kumar, et al. "In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects On Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 35, 2015, pp. 19672-83.
Joshi MK, Tiwari AP, Pant HR, et al. In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects on Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015;7(35):19672-83.
Joshi, M. K., Tiwari, A. P., Pant, H. R., Shrestha, B. K., Kim, H. J., Park, C. H., & Kim, C. S. (2015). In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects on Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(35), pp. 19672-83. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b04682.
Joshi MK, et al. In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects On Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Sep 9;7(35):19672-83. PubMed PMID: 26295953.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - In Situ Generation of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polycaprolactone Nanofibers: Effects on Crystallinity, Mechanical Strength, Biocompatibility, and Biomimetic Mineralization. AU - Joshi,Mahesh Kumar, AU - Tiwari,Arjun Prasad, AU - Pant,Hem Raj, AU - Shrestha,Bishnu Kumar, AU - Kim,Han Joo, AU - Park,Chan Hee, AU - Kim,Cheol Sang, Y1 - 2015/08/26/ PY - 2015/8/22/entrez PY - 2015/8/22/pubmed PY - 2016/7/14/medline KW - alkaline saponification KW - biomimetic mineralization KW - cellulose nanocrystals KW - composite fiber KW - electrospinning KW - post-electrospinning treatment SP - 19672 EP - 83 JF - ACS applied materials & interfaces JO - ACS Appl Mater Interfaces VL - 7 IS - 35 N2 - Post-electrospinning treatment is a facile process to improve the properties of electrospun nanofibers for various applications. This technique is commonly used when direct electrospinning is not a suitable option to fabricate a nonwoven membrane of the desired polymer in a preferred morphology. In this study, a representative natural-synthetic hybrid of cellulose acetate (CA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) in different ratios was fabricated using an electrospinning process, and CA in the hybrid fiber was transformed into cellulose (CL) by post-electrospinning treatment via alkaline saponification. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the effects of polymer composition and subsequent saponification on the morphology of the nanofibers. Increasing the PCL content in the PCL/CA blend solution caused a gradual decrease in viscosity, resulting in smoother and more uniform fibers. The saponification of fibers lead to pronounced changes in the physicochemical properties. The crystallinity of the PCL in the composite fiber was varied according to the composition of the component polymers. The water contact angle was considerably decreased (from 124° to less than 20°), and the mechanical properties were greatly enhanced (Young's Modulus was improved by ≈20-30 fold, tensile strength by 3-4 fold, and tensile stress by ≈2-4 fold) compared to those of PCL and PCL/CA membranes. Regeneration of cellulose chains in the nanofibers increased the number of hydroxyl groups, which increased the hydrogen bonding, thereby improving the mechanical properties and wettability of the composite nanofibers. The improved wettability and presence of surface functional groups enhanced the ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals throughout the matrix when exposed to a simulated body fluid solution. Experimental results of cell viability assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that the fabricated nanofibrous membranes have excellent ability for MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and growth. Given the versatility and widespread use of cellulose-synthetic hybrid systems in the construction of tissue-engineered scaffolds, this work provides a novel strategy to fabricate the biopolymer-based materials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. SN - 1944-8252 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26295953/In_Situ_Generation_of_Cellulose_Nanocrystals_in_Polycaprolactone_Nanofibers:_Effects_on_Crystallinity_Mechanical_Strength_Biocompatibility_and_Biomimetic_Mineralization_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b04682 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -