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A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Apr; 116(4):618-29.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Despite many health benefits, children do not consume enough fruits and vegetables (F/V). The Food Dudes program increases in-school F/V consumption, but the cost of prizes might be an adoption barrier.

OBJECTIVE

Our aim was to compare the effects of the Food Dudes program when prizes vs praise are used to reward F/V consumption.

DESIGN

We conducted a randomized controlled trial with three groups (ie, prize, praise, and control). Schools were randomly assigned to groups while approximately equating the percentage of students qualifying for free or reduced-price lunch. F/V consumption (lunch-tray photos) was assessed twice at pre-intervention and once after phase I, phase II, and at 6 months post-intervention, spanning approximately 11 months overall.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING

In total, 2,292 students attending six elementary schools participated, with 882, 640, and 770 in the prize, praise, and control groups, respectively.

INTERVENTION

The Food Dudes program was implemented over 4.5 months in all but the control schools. Two Food Dudes schools implemented the program with tangible prizes contingent on individual students' F/V consumption (prize group); two schools implemented Food Dudes using teacher praise instead of prizes (praise group). Follow-up data were collected 6 months post-intervention.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE

F/V consumption was assessed by digital imaging of lunch trays.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED

Linear mixed-effects modeling, including sex, grade, and baseline consumption as covariates, was performed.

RESULTS

Students attending the Food Dudes schools consumed more F/V than control schools after phase I, with larger differences in prize schools (92% difference) than praise schools (50% difference). After phase II, Food Dudes schools consumed 46% more F/V than control schools, with no difference between prize and praise schools. At 6-month follow-up, only prize schools consumed more F/V than control schools (0.12 cups more per child, 42.9% difference).

CONCLUSIONS

Social praise proved an inadequate substitute for tangible prizes within the Food Dudes program. Program-related increases in F/V consumption decreased after the intervention, underscoring the need to develop low-cost, long-term interventions to maintain and make habitual consumption of recommended levels of F/V.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26297598

Citation

Morrill, Brooke A., et al. "A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards Are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 116, no. 4, 2016, pp. 618-29.
Morrill BA, Madden GJ, Wengreen HJ, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(4):618-29.
Morrill, B. A., Madden, G. J., Wengreen, H. J., Fargo, J. D., & Aguilar, S. S. (2016). A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(4), 618-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.07.001
Morrill BA, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards Are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(4):618-29. PubMed PMID: 26297598.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Food Dudes Program: Tangible Rewards are More Effective Than Social Rewards for Increasing Short- and Long-Term Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. AU - Morrill,Brooke A, AU - Madden,Gregory J, AU - Wengreen,Heidi J, AU - Fargo,Jamison D, AU - Aguilar,Sheryl S, Y1 - 2015/08/18/ PY - 2014/10/03/received PY - 2015/07/01/accepted PY - 2015/8/23/entrez PY - 2015/8/25/pubmed PY - 2016/8/16/medline KW - Elementary school KW - Food Dudes KW - Fruit and vegetable consumption KW - Incentives KW - Long-term effects SP - 618 EP - 29 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 116 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Despite many health benefits, children do not consume enough fruits and vegetables (F/V). The Food Dudes program increases in-school F/V consumption, but the cost of prizes might be an adoption barrier. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the effects of the Food Dudes program when prizes vs praise are used to reward F/V consumption. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with three groups (ie, prize, praise, and control). Schools were randomly assigned to groups while approximately equating the percentage of students qualifying for free or reduced-price lunch. F/V consumption (lunch-tray photos) was assessed twice at pre-intervention and once after phase I, phase II, and at 6 months post-intervention, spanning approximately 11 months overall. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: In total, 2,292 students attending six elementary schools participated, with 882, 640, and 770 in the prize, praise, and control groups, respectively. INTERVENTION: The Food Dudes program was implemented over 4.5 months in all but the control schools. Two Food Dudes schools implemented the program with tangible prizes contingent on individual students' F/V consumption (prize group); two schools implemented Food Dudes using teacher praise instead of prizes (praise group). Follow-up data were collected 6 months post-intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: F/V consumption was assessed by digital imaging of lunch trays. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Linear mixed-effects modeling, including sex, grade, and baseline consumption as covariates, was performed. RESULTS: Students attending the Food Dudes schools consumed more F/V than control schools after phase I, with larger differences in prize schools (92% difference) than praise schools (50% difference). After phase II, Food Dudes schools consumed 46% more F/V than control schools, with no difference between prize and praise schools. At 6-month follow-up, only prize schools consumed more F/V than control schools (0.12 cups more per child, 42.9% difference). CONCLUSIONS: Social praise proved an inadequate substitute for tangible prizes within the Food Dudes program. Program-related increases in F/V consumption decreased after the intervention, underscoring the need to develop low-cost, long-term interventions to maintain and make habitual consumption of recommended levels of F/V. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26297598/A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial_of_the_Food_Dudes_Program:_Tangible_Rewards_are_More_Effective_Than_Social_Rewards_for_Increasing_Short__and_Long_Term_Fruit_and_Vegetable_Consumption_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -