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Phototransformation of sulfamethoxazole under simulated sunlight: Transformation products and their antibacterial activity toward Vibrio fischeri.
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Dec 15; 538:58-63.ST

Abstract

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic ubiquitously found in the aquatic environment. Since conventional biological wastewater treatment is not efficient to remove SMX, photolysis in natural waters can represent an important transformation pathway. It was recently shown that SMX transformation products can retain antibiotic activity. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand photochemical processes occurring in natural water just as the formation of active transformation products (TPs). During long-term SMX photolysis experiments (one week), nine TPs were identified by reference standards. Moreover, five further TPs of photodecomposition of SMX were found. For the first time, a TP with m/z 271 [M+H](+) was observed during photolysis and tentatively confirmed as 4,x-dihydroxylated SMX. The DOC mass balance clearly showed that only around 5 to 10% were mineralized during the experiment emphasizing the need to elucidate the fate of TPs. Bacterial bioassays confirmed that the mixture retains its antibiotic toxicity toward luminescence (24h) and that there is no change over the treatment time on EC50. In contrast, growth inhibition activity was found to slightly decrease over the irradiation time. However, this decrease was not proportional to the transformation of the parent compound SMX.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Process & Environmental Engineering, Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Wolczanska 213, 90-924 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address: marta.gmurek@p.lodz.pl.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engler-Bunte-Institut, Chair of Water Chemistry and Water Technology, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26298248

Citation

Gmurek, M, et al. "Phototransformation of Sulfamethoxazole Under Simulated Sunlight: Transformation Products and Their Antibacterial Activity Toward Vibrio Fischeri." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 538, 2015, pp. 58-63.
Gmurek M, Horn H, Majewsky M. Phototransformation of sulfamethoxazole under simulated sunlight: Transformation products and their antibacterial activity toward Vibrio fischeri. Sci Total Environ. 2015;538:58-63.
Gmurek, M., Horn, H., & Majewsky, M. (2015). Phototransformation of sulfamethoxazole under simulated sunlight: Transformation products and their antibacterial activity toward Vibrio fischeri. The Science of the Total Environment, 538, 58-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.014
Gmurek M, Horn H, Majewsky M. Phototransformation of Sulfamethoxazole Under Simulated Sunlight: Transformation Products and Their Antibacterial Activity Toward Vibrio Fischeri. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Dec 15;538:58-63. PubMed PMID: 26298248.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phototransformation of sulfamethoxazole under simulated sunlight: Transformation products and their antibacterial activity toward Vibrio fischeri. AU - Gmurek,M, AU - Horn,H, AU - Majewsky,M, Y1 - 2015/08/22/ PY - 2015/06/18/received PY - 2015/07/30/revised PY - 2015/08/04/accepted PY - 2015/8/24/entrez PY - 2015/8/25/pubmed PY - 2016/7/14/medline KW - Photolysis KW - Sulfamethoxazole KW - Toxicity KW - Transformation products SP - 58 EP - 63 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 538 N2 - Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic ubiquitously found in the aquatic environment. Since conventional biological wastewater treatment is not efficient to remove SMX, photolysis in natural waters can represent an important transformation pathway. It was recently shown that SMX transformation products can retain antibiotic activity. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand photochemical processes occurring in natural water just as the formation of active transformation products (TPs). During long-term SMX photolysis experiments (one week), nine TPs were identified by reference standards. Moreover, five further TPs of photodecomposition of SMX were found. For the first time, a TP with m/z 271 [M+H](+) was observed during photolysis and tentatively confirmed as 4,x-dihydroxylated SMX. The DOC mass balance clearly showed that only around 5 to 10% were mineralized during the experiment emphasizing the need to elucidate the fate of TPs. Bacterial bioassays confirmed that the mixture retains its antibiotic toxicity toward luminescence (24h) and that there is no change over the treatment time on EC50. In contrast, growth inhibition activity was found to slightly decrease over the irradiation time. However, this decrease was not proportional to the transformation of the parent compound SMX. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26298248/Phototransformation_of_sulfamethoxazole_under_simulated_sunlight:_Transformation_products_and_their_antibacterial_activity_toward_Vibrio_fischeri_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(15)30518-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -