[Clinical and genetic analysis for a Joubert syndrome family with CC2D2A gene mutations].Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2015 Jun; 53(6):431-5.ZE
To confirm the genetic diagnosis for providing services for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, we analyzed the clinical and genetic data of a pedigree which is clinically diagnosed as Joubert syndrome.
A Joubert syndrome pedigree was enrolled as subject of this study from our hospital's outpatients in 2013. Following the medical history collection of the proband and the suffering fetus, target sequence capture and the next-generation sequencing technology were used for the proband and the suffering fetus to find the causative genes and sanger sequencing for the members of the pedigree to check and verify if the inherited mutations are in accordance with the Mendelian inheritance. Combining the clinical symptoms and signs with the total testing results, we analyzed the Joubert syndrome pedigree clinically and genetically.
The proband showed abnormal respiratory patterns (neonatal tachypnea) and hypertonia without abnormal eye movements, and reflected the molar tooth sign on the magnetic resonance imaging. And afterwards the patient developed hypotonia, ataxia, growth and intellectual disability accompanied by congenital blepharoptosis. There were no any symptoms and signs of liver, kidney and eyesight abnormalities so far. The affected fetus showed hydrocephalus by the auxiliary examination during the second trimesters of pregnancy without any appearance deformities. Both the proband and the affected fetus carried a missense mutation of CC2D2A gene c.2999A > T (p.Glu1000Val) from their father and carried the deletion of exon 20-21 on the same gene. Both variations were confirmed to be the Mendelian genetic compound heterozygous pattern. Whereas, the missense mutations c.2999A > T (p.Glu1000Val) on the CC2D2A gene have been proved to be inherited from the proband's father and the proband as well as the affected fetus. However, the proband's mother was normal at this locus of CC2D2A gene. The missense mutations c.2999A >T (p.Glu1000Val) have been confirmed to accord with Mendelian inheritance.
The Joubert syndrome patient may show hypertonia in the early postnatal days as a result of hydrocephalus during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy besides manifesting hypotonia, ataxia, growth and intellectual disability markedly with age accompanied by the congenital blepharoptosis and revealing the molar tooth sign on the magnetic resonance imaging, considering the medical history and the whole testing results, the compound heterozygous mutations of c.2999A > T (p.Glu1000Val) and deletion of exon 20-21 of CC2D2A gene in the pedigree may be the causal gene mutations.