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Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms: evidence from a national Canadian longitudinal survey.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated associations between diet quality, including fruit and vegetable consumption, and mental health. However, research examining these associations longitudinally, while accounting for related lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, physical activity) is scarce.

METHODS

This study used data from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS), a large, national longitudinal survey of Canadians. The sample included 8353 participants aged 18 and older. Every 2 years from 2002/2003 to 2010/2011, participants completed self-reports of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, smoking and symptoms of depression and psychological distress. Using generalised estimating equations, we modelled the associations between fruit and vegetable consumption at each timepoint and depression at the next timepoint, adjusting for relevant covariates.

RESULTS

Fruit and vegetable consumption at each cycle was inversely associated with next-cycle depression (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01, p<0.01) and psychological distress (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.02, p<0.0001). However, once models were adjusted for other health-related factors, these associations were attenuated (β=-0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.02, p=0.55; β=-0.00, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.02, p=0.78 for models predicting depression and distress, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that relations between fruit and vegetable intake, other health-related behaviours and depression are complex. Behaviours such as smoking and physical activity may have a more important impact on depression than fruit and vegetable intake. Randomised control trials of diet are necessary to disentangle the effects of multiple health behaviours on mental health.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    ,

    IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Canada
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depression
    Diet
    Female
    Fruit
    Health Behavior
    Humans
    Interviews as Topic
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Vegetables
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26311898

    Citation

    Kingsbury, Mila, et al. "Associations Between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Depressive Symptoms: Evidence From a National Canadian Longitudinal Survey." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 70, no. 2, 2016, pp. 155-61.
    Kingsbury M, Dupuis G, Jacka F, et al. Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms: evidence from a national Canadian longitudinal survey. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(2):155-61.
    Kingsbury, M., Dupuis, G., Jacka, F., Roy-Gagnon, M. H., McMartin, S. E., & Colman, I. (2016). Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms: evidence from a national Canadian longitudinal survey. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70(2), pp. 155-61. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-205858.
    Kingsbury M, et al. Associations Between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Depressive Symptoms: Evidence From a National Canadian Longitudinal Survey. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(2):155-61. PubMed PMID: 26311898.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms: evidence from a national Canadian longitudinal survey. AU - Kingsbury,Mila, AU - Dupuis,Gabrielle, AU - Jacka,Felice, AU - Roy-Gagnon,Marie-Hélène, AU - McMartin,Seanna E, AU - Colman,Ian, Y1 - 2015/08/26/ PY - 2015/04/01/received PY - 2015/08/06/accepted PY - 2015/8/28/entrez PY - 2015/8/28/pubmed PY - 2016/10/26/medline KW - DEPRESSION KW - DIET KW - MENTAL HEALTH SP - 155 EP - 61 JF - Journal of epidemiology and community health JO - J Epidemiol Community Health VL - 70 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated associations between diet quality, including fruit and vegetable consumption, and mental health. However, research examining these associations longitudinally, while accounting for related lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, physical activity) is scarce. METHODS: This study used data from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS), a large, national longitudinal survey of Canadians. The sample included 8353 participants aged 18 and older. Every 2 years from 2002/2003 to 2010/2011, participants completed self-reports of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, smoking and symptoms of depression and psychological distress. Using generalised estimating equations, we modelled the associations between fruit and vegetable consumption at each timepoint and depression at the next timepoint, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Fruit and vegetable consumption at each cycle was inversely associated with next-cycle depression (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01, p<0.01) and psychological distress (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.02, p<0.0001). However, once models were adjusted for other health-related factors, these associations were attenuated (β=-0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.02, p=0.55; β=-0.00, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.02, p=0.78 for models predicting depression and distress, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that relations between fruit and vegetable intake, other health-related behaviours and depression are complex. Behaviours such as smoking and physical activity may have a more important impact on depression than fruit and vegetable intake. Randomised control trials of diet are necessary to disentangle the effects of multiple health behaviours on mental health. SN - 1470-2738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26311898/Associations_between_fruit_and_vegetable_consumption_and_depressive_symptoms:_evidence_from_a_national_Canadian_longitudinal_survey_ L2 - http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=26311898 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -