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Highly active antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidemia in people living with HIV/AIDS in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The advent of HAART has been associated with a profound reduction in morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS. However, side effects and toxicities associated with HAART may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and determining factors of derangements in lipid profile associated with the use of HAART regimens in people living with HIV/AIDS in Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and August 2014. Lipid profile was determined after overnight fast and dyslipidemia diagnosed according to the US National Cholesterol Education Program III criteria. Socio-demographic characteristics were also collected using a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using STATA; chi-square test, student's t-test, ANOVA and logistic regressions were computed.

RESULTS

Two hundred and nine participants were recruited including 157 (75.1 %) on HAART and 52 (24.9 %) HAART-naïve. Antiretrovirals were drugs containing two nucleoside backbones (zidovudine/ /lamivudine/tenofovir) with either a non-nucleoside (nevirapine/efavirenz) or a protease inhibitor (lopinavir). No patient was treated with statins. Their mean age was 43.4 (±11.0) years. The mean CD4(+) T cell count was 425 (±281) cells/μl after mean duration of HIV infection of 54.8 (±43.9) months and mean duration on ART of 63.7 (±41.4) months. The prevalence of total cholesterol (≥ 200 mg/dL) was 51.0 % in patients on HAART and 9.6 % pre-HAART patients (p < 0.0001), whereas LDL-cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dL occurred in 36.9 % and in 7.7 % respectively, (p = 0.0001). Receiving HAART (adjusted odds ratio =6.24, 95 % CI: 2.33-17.45, p < 0.0001) and HIV duration of 42 months and more (aOR = 2.26, 95 % CI: 1.16-4.42, p = 0.017) were independently associated with total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL. Receiving HAART (aOR = 5.28, 95 % CI: 1.17-16.32, p = 0.004) was independently associated with raised LDL-cholesterol values. The adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) of BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2) versus BMI < 25.0 kg/m(2) was 3.25 (1.44-7.34) for triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL.

CONCLUSION

HAART regimens were significantly associated with atherogenic lipid profile. Lipid profile should be monitored in HIV/AIDS patients on therapy so that any negative effects of HAART are optimally managed.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. nsaghads@hotmail.com.

    ,

    Department of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. elroypat@yahoo.co.uk.

    ,

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. juleclement@yahoo.fr.

    ,

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. ann_njunda@yahoo.com.

    ,

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. asangbengelvis@gmail.com.

    ,

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. yayaodette@yahoo.com.

    ,

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. ayimacharlotte@yahoo.com.

    Department of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O Box 12, Buea, Cameroon. nkouki2002@yahoo.fr.

    Source

    BMC cardiovascular disorders 15: 2015 Aug 28 pg 95

    MeSH

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    Adult
    Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
    Cameroon
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Dyslipidemias
    Female
    HIV Infections
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Triglycerides
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26315756

    Citation

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey, et al. "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Dyslipidemia in People Living With HIV/AIDS in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon." BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 15, 2015, p. 95.
    Nsagha DS, Weledji EP, Assob NJ, et al. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidemia in people living with HIV/AIDS in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015;15:95.
    Nsagha, D. S., Weledji, E. P., Assob, N. J., Njunda, L. A., Tanue, E. A., Kibu, O. D., ... Ngowe, M. N. (2015). Highly active antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidemia in people living with HIV/AIDS in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 15, p. 95. doi:10.1186/s12872-015-0090-5.
    Nsagha DS, et al. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Dyslipidemia in People Living With HIV/AIDS in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015 Aug 28;15:95. PubMed PMID: 26315756.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Highly active antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidemia in people living with HIV/AIDS in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. AU - Nsagha,Dickson Shey, AU - Weledji,Elroy Patrick, AU - Assob,Nguedia Jules Clement, AU - Njunda,Longdoh Anna, AU - Tanue,Elvis Asangbeng, AU - Kibu,Odette Dzemo, AU - Ayima,Charlotte Wenze, AU - Ngowe,Marcelin Ngowe, Y1 - 2015/08/28/ PY - 2015/05/07/received PY - 2015/08/20/accepted PY - 2015/8/29/entrez PY - 2015/9/1/pubmed PY - 2016/4/5/medline SP - 95 EP - 95 JF - BMC cardiovascular disorders JO - BMC Cardiovasc Disord VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: The advent of HAART has been associated with a profound reduction in morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS. However, side effects and toxicities associated with HAART may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and determining factors of derangements in lipid profile associated with the use of HAART regimens in people living with HIV/AIDS in Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and August 2014. Lipid profile was determined after overnight fast and dyslipidemia diagnosed according to the US National Cholesterol Education Program III criteria. Socio-demographic characteristics were also collected using a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using STATA; chi-square test, student's t-test, ANOVA and logistic regressions were computed. RESULTS: Two hundred and nine participants were recruited including 157 (75.1 %) on HAART and 52 (24.9 %) HAART-naïve. Antiretrovirals were drugs containing two nucleoside backbones (zidovudine/ /lamivudine/tenofovir) with either a non-nucleoside (nevirapine/efavirenz) or a protease inhibitor (lopinavir). No patient was treated with statins. Their mean age was 43.4 (±11.0) years. The mean CD4(+) T cell count was 425 (±281) cells/μl after mean duration of HIV infection of 54.8 (±43.9) months and mean duration on ART of 63.7 (±41.4) months. The prevalence of total cholesterol (≥ 200 mg/dL) was 51.0 % in patients on HAART and 9.6 % pre-HAART patients (p < 0.0001), whereas LDL-cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dL occurred in 36.9 % and in 7.7 % respectively, (p = 0.0001). Receiving HAART (adjusted odds ratio =6.24, 95 % CI: 2.33-17.45, p < 0.0001) and HIV duration of 42 months and more (aOR = 2.26, 95 % CI: 1.16-4.42, p = 0.017) were independently associated with total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL. Receiving HAART (aOR = 5.28, 95 % CI: 1.17-16.32, p = 0.004) was independently associated with raised LDL-cholesterol values. The adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) of BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2) versus BMI < 25.0 kg/m(2) was 3.25 (1.44-7.34) for triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL. CONCLUSION: HAART regimens were significantly associated with atherogenic lipid profile. Lipid profile should be monitored in HIV/AIDS patients on therapy so that any negative effects of HAART are optimally managed. SN - 1471-2261 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26315756/Highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy_and_dyslipidemia_in_people_living_with_HIV/AIDS_in_Fako_Division_South_West_Region_of_Cameroon_ L2 - https://bmccardiovascdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12872-015-0090-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -