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COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2016 Aug 15; 785:116-132.EJ

Abstract

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Insitute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, DRDO, Delhi, India; BioScience Research Centre, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering Campus, Visakhapatnam 530 048, India.Insitute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, DRDO, Delhi, India.Insitute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, DRDO, Delhi, India.BioScience Research Centre, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering Campus, Visakhapatnam 530 048, India; UND Life Sciences, 2020 S 360th St, # K-202, Federal Way, WA 98003, USA. Electronic address: undurti@hotmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26335394

Citation

Poorani, R, et al. "COX-2, Aspirin and Metabolism of Arachidonic, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids and Their Physiological and Clinical Significance." European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 785, 2016, pp. 116-132.
Poorani R, Bhatt AN, Dwarakanath BS, et al. COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;785:116-132.
Poorani, R., Bhatt, A. N., Dwarakanath, B. S., & Das, U. N. (2016). COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance. European Journal of Pharmacology, 785, 116-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.08.049
Poorani R, et al. COX-2, Aspirin and Metabolism of Arachidonic, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids and Their Physiological and Clinical Significance. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016 Aug 15;785:116-132. PubMed PMID: 26335394.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - COX-2, aspirin and metabolism of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and their physiological and clinical significance. AU - Poorani,R, AU - Bhatt,Anant N, AU - Dwarakanath,B S, AU - Das,Undurti N, Y1 - 2015/09/01/ PY - 2015/02/12/received PY - 2015/06/19/revised PY - 2015/08/26/accepted PY - 2015/9/4/entrez PY - 2015/9/4/pubmed PY - 2017/2/28/medline KW - Aspirin KW - Lipoxins KW - Nitric oxide KW - Polyunsaturated fatty acids KW - Prostaglandins KW - Resolvins SP - 116 EP - 132 JF - European journal of pharmacology JO - Eur J Pharmacol VL - 785 N2 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are vital for normal growth and development and physiological function of various tissues in humans. PUFAs have immunomodulatory actions in addition to their ability to modulate inflammation, vascular reactivity, neurotransmission and stem cell biology. PUFAs and their metabolites possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties that underlie their actions and involvement in several diseases. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory action and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 {(called as epi-lipoxin A4, aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATLs))}. In addition, at low doses aspirin may not interfere with the production of prostacyclin (PGI2). Both lipoxin A4 and PGI2 have vasodilator, platelet anti-aggregator and anti-inflammatory actions that may underlie the beneficial actions of aspirin. Paradoxically, other NSAIDs may not have the same actions as that of aspirin on PUFA metabolism. Similar anti-inflammatory compounds are formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by the action of aspirin termed as resolvins (from EPA and DHA) and protectins and maresins from DHA. PUFAs: arachidonic acid (AA), EPA and DHA and their various products modulate not only inflammation and immune response but also possess actions on various genes, nuclear factors, cyclic AMP and GMP, G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), hypothalamic neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines and enzymes, and interact with nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide to regulate their formation and action and to form new compounds that have several biological actions. These pleiotropic actions of PUFAs and their metabolites may explain their ability to play a role in several physiological actions and diseases. The big challenge is to harness these actions to prevent and manage clinical conditions. SN - 1879-0712 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26335394/COX_2_aspirin_and_metabolism_of_arachidonic_eicosapentaenoic_and_docosahexaenoic_acids_and_their_physiological_and_clinical_significance_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014-2999(15)30221-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -