Hypovitaminosis D is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostate hyperplasia in type 2 diabetes.Andrology. 2015 Nov; 3(6):1062-7.A
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may develop more commonly in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). LUTS are often associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), in general population. An association between LUTS and hypovitaminosis D, and between hypovitaminosis D and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), has also been suggested. Thus, we aim to evaluate possible relationships between hypovitaminosis D, LUTS, and BPH in T2DM men. In this prospective observational study, 67 T2DM males (57.9 ± 9.28 years) underwent medical history collection, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, that allows the identification and grading of LUTS, physical examination, biochemical/hormonal blood tests (fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, LH, total testosterone, estradiol (E2), 25-OH-vitamin D, PTH, calcium, phosphate, and PSA) and ultrasound transrectal prostate examination. Subdividing patients into three groups, on the base of 25-OH-vitamin D concentration (sufficiency ≥50; insufficiency >25 < 50; and deficiency ≤25 nm), a significant progressive increase of prostate volume (p = 0.037), IPSS score (p = 0.019), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.018), and a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol (p = 0.038) were observed. 25-OH-Vitamin D levels were inversely correlated with both IPSS (R = -0.333; p = 0.006) and prostate volume (R = -0.311; p = 0.011). At multivariate analysis, hypovitaminosis D remained an independent predictor of both IPSS and prostate volume. In conclusion, we showed, for the first time, an association between 25-OH-vitamin D deficiency, LUTS, and BPH in T2DM men.