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The moderator effects of affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult stressful life events on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population.
J Affect Disord. 2015 Nov 15; 187:203-10.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

We recently demonstrated in the structural equation modeling that four of five affective temperaments, as measured by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire version (TEMPS-A), are strong mediators between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. In this study, we hypothesized that affective temperaments, childhood abuse, and adult life events have moderator effects that interact with one another on depressive symptoms. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze this interaction model.

METHODS

The 286 participants from the nonclinical general adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Life Experiences Survey (LES), TEMPS-A, and Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regressions with interactions.

RESULTS

Depressive temperament enhanced and hyperthymic temperament inhibited the depressogenic effects of childhood abuse, while irritable temperament enhanced and hyperthymic temperament inhibited the depressogenic effects of adult negative (stressful) life events. Adult positive life events had an inhibitory moderator effect on depressive symptoms that was increased by cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Neglect, punishment, and total childhood abuse enhanced the effects of negative life events on depressive symptoms.

LIMITATIONS

As the subjects of this study were nonclinical, the findings should not be generalized to patients with mood disorders. In this cross-sectional study, there may be interdependence between the measured variables.

CONCLUSIONS

This study, using the hierarchical multiple regression analysis with interaction, demonstrated the positive and negative interactions between any two of affective temperaments, childhood abuse, and adult life events, and the influence on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. Important moderator roles for affective temperaments, childhood abuse, and adult life events on depressive symptoms were suggested.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1, Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan. Electronic address: tinoue@tokyo-med.ac.jp.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical College, Namiki 3-2, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan.Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26342173

Citation

Nakai, Yukiei, et al. "The Moderator Effects of Affective Temperaments, Childhood Abuse and Adult Stressful Life Events On Depressive Symptoms in the Nonclinical General Adult Population." Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 187, 2015, pp. 203-10.
Nakai Y, Inoue T, Chen C, et al. The moderator effects of affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult stressful life events on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. J Affect Disord. 2015;187:203-10.
Nakai, Y., Inoue, T., Chen, C., Toda, H., Toyomaki, A., Nakato, Y., Nakagawa, S., Kitaichi, Y., Kameyama, R., Wakatsuki, Y., Kitagawa, K., Tanabe, H., & Kusumi, I. (2015). The moderator effects of affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult stressful life events on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 203-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.011
Nakai Y, et al. The Moderator Effects of Affective Temperaments, Childhood Abuse and Adult Stressful Life Events On Depressive Symptoms in the Nonclinical General Adult Population. J Affect Disord. 2015 Nov 15;187:203-10. PubMed PMID: 26342173.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The moderator effects of affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult stressful life events on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. AU - Nakai,Yukiei, AU - Inoue,Takeshi, AU - Chen,Chong, AU - Toda,Hiroyuki, AU - Toyomaki,Atsuhito, AU - Nakato,Yasuya, AU - Nakagawa,Shin, AU - Kitaichi,Yuji, AU - Kameyama,Rie, AU - Wakatsuki,Yumi, AU - Kitagawa,Kan, AU - Tanabe,Hajime, AU - Kusumi,Ichiro, Y1 - 2015/08/28/ PY - 2015/04/03/received PY - 2015/06/07/revised PY - 2015/08/04/accepted PY - 2015/9/6/entrez PY - 2015/9/6/pubmed PY - 2016/6/2/medline KW - Adult life events KW - Affective temperaments KW - Childhood abuse KW - Depression KW - Moderator KW - TEMPS-A SP - 203 EP - 10 JF - Journal of affective disorders JO - J Affect Disord VL - 187 N2 - BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated in the structural equation modeling that four of five affective temperaments, as measured by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire version (TEMPS-A), are strong mediators between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. In this study, we hypothesized that affective temperaments, childhood abuse, and adult life events have moderator effects that interact with one another on depressive symptoms. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze this interaction model. METHODS: The 286 participants from the nonclinical general adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Life Experiences Survey (LES), TEMPS-A, and Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regressions with interactions. RESULTS: Depressive temperament enhanced and hyperthymic temperament inhibited the depressogenic effects of childhood abuse, while irritable temperament enhanced and hyperthymic temperament inhibited the depressogenic effects of adult negative (stressful) life events. Adult positive life events had an inhibitory moderator effect on depressive symptoms that was increased by cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Neglect, punishment, and total childhood abuse enhanced the effects of negative life events on depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: As the subjects of this study were nonclinical, the findings should not be generalized to patients with mood disorders. In this cross-sectional study, there may be interdependence between the measured variables. CONCLUSIONS: This study, using the hierarchical multiple regression analysis with interaction, demonstrated the positive and negative interactions between any two of affective temperaments, childhood abuse, and adult life events, and the influence on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population. Important moderator roles for affective temperaments, childhood abuse, and adult life events on depressive symptoms were suggested. SN - 1573-2517 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26342173/The_moderator_effects_of_affective_temperaments_childhood_abuse_and_adult_stressful_life_events_on_depressive_symptoms_in_the_nonclinical_general_adult_population_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0327(15)30018-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -