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Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall changes during winemaking using combined high-throughput and fractionation methods.
Carbohydr Polym. 2015 Nov 20; 133:567-77.CP

Abstract

Limited information is available on grape wall-derived polymeric structure/composition and how this changes during fermentation. Commercial winemaking operations use enzymes that target the polysaccharide-rich polymers of the cell walls of grape tissues to clarify musts and extract pigments during the fermentations. In this study, we have assessed changes in polysaccharide composition/turnover throughout the winemaking process by applying recently developed cell wall profiling approaches for monosaccharide composition (GC-MS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). CoMPP performed on the concentrated soluble wine polysaccharides showed a fraction rich in rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), homogalacturonan (HG) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). We also used chemical and enzymatic fractionation techniques in addition to CoMPP to understand the berry deconstruction process more in-depth. CoMPP and gravimetric analysis of the fractionated pomace used aqueous buffers and CDTA solutions to obtain a pectin-rich fraction (pulp tightly-bound to skins) containing HG, RGI and AGPs; and then alkali (sodium carbonate and potassium hydroxide), liberating a xyloglucan-rich fraction (mainly skins). Interestingly this fraction was found to include pectins consisting of tightly associated and highly methyl-esterified HG and RGI networks. This was supported by enzymatic fractionation targeting pectin and xyloglucan polymers. A unique aspect is datasets suggesting that enzyme-resistant pectin polymers 'coat' the inner xyloglucan-rich skin cells. This data has important implications for developing effective strategies for efficient release of favorable compounds (pigments, tannins, aromatics, etc.) from the berry tissues during winemaking. This study provides a framework to understand the complex interactions between the grape matrix and carbohydrate-active enzymes to produce wine of desired quality and consistency.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa.Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1001, Denmark.Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1001, Denmark.Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa.Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa. Electronic address: moorejp@sun.ac.za.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26344315

Citation

Gao, Yu, et al. "Dissecting the Polysaccharide-rich Grape Cell Wall Changes During Winemaking Using Combined High-throughput and Fractionation Methods." Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 133, 2015, pp. 567-77.
Gao Y, Fangel JU, Willats WG, et al. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall changes during winemaking using combined high-throughput and fractionation methods. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;133:567-77.
Gao, Y., Fangel, J. U., Willats, W. G., Vivier, M. A., & Moore, J. P. (2015). Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall changes during winemaking using combined high-throughput and fractionation methods. Carbohydrate Polymers, 133, 567-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.07.026
Gao Y, et al. Dissecting the Polysaccharide-rich Grape Cell Wall Changes During Winemaking Using Combined High-throughput and Fractionation Methods. Carbohydr Polym. 2015 Nov 20;133:567-77. PubMed PMID: 26344315.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall changes during winemaking using combined high-throughput and fractionation methods. AU - Gao,Yu, AU - Fangel,Jonatan U, AU - Willats,William G T, AU - Vivier,Melané A, AU - Moore,John P, Y1 - 2015/07/22/ PY - 2015/04/29/received PY - 2015/07/03/revised PY - 2015/07/09/accepted PY - 2015/9/8/entrez PY - 2015/9/8/pubmed PY - 2016/6/28/medline KW - Cell wall KW - Fractionation KW - Grape pomace KW - Pectin KW - Profiling KW - Winemaking KW - Xyloglucan SP - 567 EP - 77 JF - Carbohydrate polymers JO - Carbohydr Polym VL - 133 N2 - Limited information is available on grape wall-derived polymeric structure/composition and how this changes during fermentation. Commercial winemaking operations use enzymes that target the polysaccharide-rich polymers of the cell walls of grape tissues to clarify musts and extract pigments during the fermentations. In this study, we have assessed changes in polysaccharide composition/turnover throughout the winemaking process by applying recently developed cell wall profiling approaches for monosaccharide composition (GC-MS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP). CoMPP performed on the concentrated soluble wine polysaccharides showed a fraction rich in rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), homogalacturonan (HG) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). We also used chemical and enzymatic fractionation techniques in addition to CoMPP to understand the berry deconstruction process more in-depth. CoMPP and gravimetric analysis of the fractionated pomace used aqueous buffers and CDTA solutions to obtain a pectin-rich fraction (pulp tightly-bound to skins) containing HG, RGI and AGPs; and then alkali (sodium carbonate and potassium hydroxide), liberating a xyloglucan-rich fraction (mainly skins). Interestingly this fraction was found to include pectins consisting of tightly associated and highly methyl-esterified HG and RGI networks. This was supported by enzymatic fractionation targeting pectin and xyloglucan polymers. A unique aspect is datasets suggesting that enzyme-resistant pectin polymers 'coat' the inner xyloglucan-rich skin cells. This data has important implications for developing effective strategies for efficient release of favorable compounds (pigments, tannins, aromatics, etc.) from the berry tissues during winemaking. This study provides a framework to understand the complex interactions between the grape matrix and carbohydrate-active enzymes to produce wine of desired quality and consistency. SN - 1879-1344 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26344315/Dissecting_the_polysaccharide_rich_grape_cell_wall_changes_during_winemaking_using_combined_high_throughput_and_fractionation_methods_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -