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Faster diversification on land than sea helps explain global biodiversity patterns among habitats and animal phyla.
Ecol Lett. 2015 Nov; 18(11):1234-1241.EL

Abstract

Terrestrial environments occupy ~ 30% of the Earth's surface yet contain ~ 80% of all species. The causes of this dramatic biodiversity gradient have remained relatively unstudied. Here, I test the fundamental prediction that predominantly non-marine clades have more rapid rates of diversification than marine clades, using a time-calibrated phylogeny of animal phyla. The results strongly support this hypothesis. This pattern helps explain the higher richness of terrestrial environments and the dramatic variation in species richness among animal phyla. The results show the importance of ecology in explaining large-scale patterns of clade richness and of diversification rates in explaining Earth's largest biodiversity patterns. The results also demonstrate remarkable niche conservatism in habitats, in some cases lasting > 800 million years. Finally, the results highlight the surprisingly high species richness of freshwater habitats, which are nearly equal to marine environments despite their much smaller area (~ 2% of Earth's surface vs. 70% for marine habitats).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0081, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Letter

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26346782

Citation

Wiens, John J.. "Faster Diversification On Land Than Sea Helps Explain Global Biodiversity Patterns Among Habitats and Animal Phyla." Ecology Letters, vol. 18, no. 11, 2015, pp. 1234-1241.
Wiens JJ. Faster diversification on land than sea helps explain global biodiversity patterns among habitats and animal phyla. Ecol Lett. 2015;18(11):1234-1241.
Wiens, J. J. (2015). Faster diversification on land than sea helps explain global biodiversity patterns among habitats and animal phyla. Ecology Letters, 18(11), 1234-1241. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12503
Wiens JJ. Faster Diversification On Land Than Sea Helps Explain Global Biodiversity Patterns Among Habitats and Animal Phyla. Ecol Lett. 2015;18(11):1234-1241. PubMed PMID: 26346782.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Faster diversification on land than sea helps explain global biodiversity patterns among habitats and animal phyla. A1 - Wiens,John J, Y1 - 2015/09/08/ PY - 2015/06/29/received PY - 2015/08/04/revised PY - 2015/08/07/accepted PY - 2015/9/9/pubmed PY - 2015/9/9/medline PY - 2015/9/9/entrez KW - Animal phyla, diversification KW - freshwater KW - marine KW - niche conservatism KW - phylogeny, species richness KW - terrestrial SP - 1234 EP - 1241 JF - Ecology letters JO - Ecol Lett VL - 18 IS - 11 N2 - Terrestrial environments occupy ~ 30% of the Earth's surface yet contain ~ 80% of all species. The causes of this dramatic biodiversity gradient have remained relatively unstudied. Here, I test the fundamental prediction that predominantly non-marine clades have more rapid rates of diversification than marine clades, using a time-calibrated phylogeny of animal phyla. The results strongly support this hypothesis. This pattern helps explain the higher richness of terrestrial environments and the dramatic variation in species richness among animal phyla. The results show the importance of ecology in explaining large-scale patterns of clade richness and of diversification rates in explaining Earth's largest biodiversity patterns. The results also demonstrate remarkable niche conservatism in habitats, in some cases lasting > 800 million years. Finally, the results highlight the surprisingly high species richness of freshwater habitats, which are nearly equal to marine environments despite their much smaller area (~ 2% of Earth's surface vs. 70% for marine habitats). SN - 1461-0248 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26346782/Faster_diversification_on_land_than_sea_helps_explain_global_biodiversity_patterns_among_habitats_and_animal_phyla_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12503 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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