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Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.
Vet Parasitol. 2015 Sep 15; 212(3-4):331-5.VP

Abstract

This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Programa de Pós-graduação em Comportamento e Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n-Campus Universitário Bairro Martelos, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Electronic address: tatinovatojf@gmail.com.Programa de Pós-graduação em Comportamento e Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n-Campus Universitário Bairro Martelos, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação em Comportamento e Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n-Campus Universitário Bairro Martelos, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho. R. 10, 13505-470 Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil.Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação em Comportamento e Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n-Campus Universitário Bairro Martelos, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26346899

Citation

Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes, et al. "Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Thymol, Carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde On Amblyomma Sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor Nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Larvae." Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 212, no. 3-4, 2015, pp. 331-5.
Novato TP, Araújo LX, de Monteiro CM, et al. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae. Vet Parasitol. 2015;212(3-4):331-5.
Novato, T. P., Araújo, L. X., de Monteiro, C. M., Maturano, R., Senra, T. d. e. . O., da Silva Matos, R., Gomes, G. A., de Carvalho, M. G., & Daemon, E. (2015). Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae. Veterinary Parasitology, 212(3-4), 331-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.08.021
Novato TP, et al. Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Thymol, Carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde On Amblyomma Sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor Nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Larvae. Vet Parasitol. 2015 Sep 15;212(3-4):331-5. PubMed PMID: 26346899.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae. AU - Novato,Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes, AU - Araújo,Laryssa Xavier, AU - de Monteiro,Caio Márcio Oliveira, AU - Maturano,Ralph, AU - Senra,Tatiane de Oliveira Souza, AU - da Silva Matos,Renata, AU - Gomes,Geovany Amorim, AU - de Carvalho,Mario Geraldo, AU - Daemon,Erik, Y1 - 2015/08/24/ PY - 2015/01/06/received PY - 2015/08/12/revised PY - 2015/08/19/accepted PY - 2015/9/9/entrez PY - 2015/9/9/pubmed PY - 2016/8/9/medline KW - Monoterpene KW - Phenylpropanoid KW - Synergism KW - Tick SP - 331 EP - 5 JF - Veterinary parasitology JO - Vet. Parasitol. VL - 212 IS - 3-4 N2 - This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. SN - 1873-2550 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26346899/Evaluation_of_the_combined_effect_of_thymol_carvacrol_and__E__cinnamaldehyde_on_Amblyomma_sculptum__Acari:_Ixodidae__and_Dermacentor_nitens__Acari:_Ixodidae__larvae_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304-4017(15)30001-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -