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Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Abstract

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: jinendo@keio.jp.

    Laboratory for Metabolomics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan; Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Kanagawa, Japan. Electronic address: makoto.arita@riken.jp.

    Source

    Journal of cardiology 67:1 2016 Jan pg 22-7

    MeSH

    Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
    Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Cardiotonic Agents
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Humans
    Vascular Remodeling

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26359712

    Citation

    Endo, Jin, and Makoto Arita. "Cardioprotective Mechanism of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids." Journal of Cardiology, vol. 67, no. 1, 2016, pp. 22-7.
    Endo J, Arita M. Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Cardiol. 2016;67(1):22-7.
    Endo, J., & Arita, M. (2016). Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Cardiology, 67(1), pp. 22-7. doi:10.1016/j.jjcc.2015.08.002.
    Endo J, Arita M. Cardioprotective Mechanism of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. J Cardiol. 2016;67(1):22-7. PubMed PMID: 26359712.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. AU - Endo,Jin, AU - Arita,Makoto, Y1 - 2015/09/08/ PY - 2015/07/31/received PY - 2015/07/31/accepted PY - 2015/9/12/entrez PY - 2015/9/12/pubmed PY - 2016/8/4/medline KW - 18-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid KW - Anti-inflammation KW - Cardiovascular disease KW - Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids KW - Specialized proresolving mediators SP - 22 EP - 7 JF - Journal of cardiology JO - J Cardiol VL - 67 IS - 1 N2 - Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs. SN - 1876-4738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26359712/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0914-5087(15)00230-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -