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Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE

Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is associated with brain structural abnormalities, cognitive decline, and incident dementia.

OBJECTIVE

To assess associations between VitD status and trajectories of change in subdomains of cognitive function in a cohort of ethnically diverse older adults.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Longitudinal multiethnic cohort study of 382 participants in an outpatient clinic enrolled between February 2002 and August 2010 with baseline assessment and yearly follow-up visits. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured, with VitD status defined as the following: deficient, less than 12 ng/mL (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496); insufficient, 12 to less than 20 ng/mL; adequate, 20 to less than 50 ng/mL; or high, 50 ng/mL or higher. Subdomains of cognitive function were assessed using the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales. Associations were evaluated between 25-OHD levels (as continuous and categorical [deficient, insufficient, or adequate]) and trajectories of cognitive decline.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

Serum 25-OHD levels, cognitive function, and associations between 25-OHD levels and trajectories of cognitive decline.

RESULTS

Participants (N = 382 at baseline) had a mean (SD) age of 75.5 (7.0) years; 61.8% were women; and 41.4% were white, 29.6% African American, 25.1% Hispanic, and 3.9% other race/ethnicity. Diagnosis at enrollment included 17.5% with dementia, 32.7% with mild cognitive impairment, and 49.5% cognitively normal. The mean (SD) 25-OHD level was 19.2 (11.7) ng/mL, with 26.2% of participants being VitD deficient and 35.1% insufficient. The mean (SD) 25-OHD levels were significantly lower for African American and Hispanic participants compared with white participants (17.9 [15.8] and 17.2 [8.4] vs 21.7 [10.0] ng/mL, respectively; P < .001 for both). The mean (SD) 25-OHD levels were similarly lower in the dementia group compared with the mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal groups (16.2 [9.4] vs 20.0 [10.3] and 19.7 [13.1] ng/mL, respectively; P = .006). The mean (SD) follow-up was 4.8 (2.5) years. Rates of decline in episodic memory and executive function among VitD-deficient (episodic memory: β = -0.04 [SE = 0.02], P = .049; executive function: β = -0.05 [SE = 0.02], P = .01) and VitD-insufficient (episodic memory: β = -0.06 [SE = 0.02], P < .001; executive function: β = -0.04 [SE = 0.02], P = .008) participants were greater than those with adequate status after controlling for age, sex, education, ethnicity, body mass index, season of blood draw, vascular risk, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with decline in semantic memory or visuospatial ability. Exclusion of participants with dementia did not substantially affect the associations between VitD status and rates of cognitive decline.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

Low VitD status was associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function domains in ethnically diverse older adults, including African American and Hispanic individuals who exhibited a high prevalence of VitD insufficiency or deficiency. It remains to be determined whether VitD supplementation slows cognitive decline.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey2Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Davis.

    ,

    Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis.

    ,

    Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis.

    ,

    Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Davis.

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    Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis.

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    Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis.

    ,

    Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis.

    ,

    Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis.

    Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis.

    Source

    JAMA neurology 72:11 2015 Nov pg 1295-303

    MeSH

    African Continental Ancestry Group
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Aging
    California
    Cognition Disorders
    Cognitive Dysfunction
    Dementia
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Hispanic Americans
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin D Deficiency

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26366714

    Citation

    Miller, Joshua W., et al. "Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults." JAMA Neurology, vol. 72, no. 11, 2015, pp. 1295-303.
    Miller JW, Harvey DJ, Beckett LA, et al. Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(11):1295-303.
    Miller, J. W., Harvey, D. J., Beckett, L. A., Green, R., Farias, S. T., Reed, B. R., ... DeCarli, C. (2015). Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults. JAMA Neurology, 72(11), pp. 1295-303. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.2115.
    Miller JW, et al. Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(11):1295-303. PubMed PMID: 26366714.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D Status and Rates of Cognitive Decline in a Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults. AU - Miller,Joshua W, AU - Harvey,Danielle J, AU - Beckett,Laurel A, AU - Green,Ralph, AU - Farias,Sarah Tomaszewski, AU - Reed,Bruce R, AU - Olichney,John M, AU - Mungas,Dan M, AU - DeCarli,Charles, PY - 2015/9/15/entrez PY - 2015/9/15/pubmed PY - 2016/3/12/medline SP - 1295 EP - 303 JF - JAMA neurology JO - JAMA Neurol VL - 72 IS - 11 N2 - IMPORTANCE: Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is associated with brain structural abnormalities, cognitive decline, and incident dementia. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between VitD status and trajectories of change in subdomains of cognitive function in a cohort of ethnically diverse older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal multiethnic cohort study of 382 participants in an outpatient clinic enrolled between February 2002 and August 2010 with baseline assessment and yearly follow-up visits. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured, with VitD status defined as the following: deficient, less than 12 ng/mL (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496); insufficient, 12 to less than 20 ng/mL; adequate, 20 to less than 50 ng/mL; or high, 50 ng/mL or higher. Subdomains of cognitive function were assessed using the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales. Associations were evaluated between 25-OHD levels (as continuous and categorical [deficient, insufficient, or adequate]) and trajectories of cognitive decline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Serum 25-OHD levels, cognitive function, and associations between 25-OHD levels and trajectories of cognitive decline. RESULTS: Participants (N = 382 at baseline) had a mean (SD) age of 75.5 (7.0) years; 61.8% were women; and 41.4% were white, 29.6% African American, 25.1% Hispanic, and 3.9% other race/ethnicity. Diagnosis at enrollment included 17.5% with dementia, 32.7% with mild cognitive impairment, and 49.5% cognitively normal. The mean (SD) 25-OHD level was 19.2 (11.7) ng/mL, with 26.2% of participants being VitD deficient and 35.1% insufficient. The mean (SD) 25-OHD levels were significantly lower for African American and Hispanic participants compared with white participants (17.9 [15.8] and 17.2 [8.4] vs 21.7 [10.0] ng/mL, respectively; P < .001 for both). The mean (SD) 25-OHD levels were similarly lower in the dementia group compared with the mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal groups (16.2 [9.4] vs 20.0 [10.3] and 19.7 [13.1] ng/mL, respectively; P = .006). The mean (SD) follow-up was 4.8 (2.5) years. Rates of decline in episodic memory and executive function among VitD-deficient (episodic memory: β = -0.04 [SE = 0.02], P = .049; executive function: β = -0.05 [SE = 0.02], P = .01) and VitD-insufficient (episodic memory: β = -0.06 [SE = 0.02], P < .001; executive function: β = -0.04 [SE = 0.02], P = .008) participants were greater than those with adequate status after controlling for age, sex, education, ethnicity, body mass index, season of blood draw, vascular risk, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with decline in semantic memory or visuospatial ability. Exclusion of participants with dementia did not substantially affect the associations between VitD status and rates of cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Low VitD status was associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function domains in ethnically diverse older adults, including African American and Hispanic individuals who exhibited a high prevalence of VitD insufficiency or deficiency. It remains to be determined whether VitD supplementation slows cognitive decline. SN - 2168-6157 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26366714/Vitamin_D_Status_and_Rates_of_Cognitive_Decline_in_a_Multiethnic_Cohort_of_Older_Adults_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaneurology/fullarticle/10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.2115 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -