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Sex Differences in Academic Rank in US Medical Schools in 2014.
JAMA. 2015 Sep 15; 314(11):1149-58.JAMA

Abstract

IMPORTANCE

The proportion of women at the rank of full professor in US medical schools has not increased since 1980 and remains below that of men. Whether differences in age, experience, specialty, and research productivity between sexes explain persistent disparities in faculty rank has not been studied.

OBJECTIVE

To analyze sex differences in faculty rank among US academic physicians.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

We analyzed sex differences in faculty rank using a cross-sectional comprehensive database of US physicians with medical school faculty appointments in 2014 (91,073 physicians; 9.1% of all US physicians), linked to information on physician sex, age, years since residency, specialty, authored publications, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and clinical trial investigation. We estimated sex differences in full professorship, as well as a combined outcome of associate or full professorship, adjusting for these factors in a multilevel (hierarchical) model. We also analyzed how sex differences varied with specialty and whether differences were more prevalent at schools ranked highly in research.

EXPOSURES

Physician sex.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

Academic faculty rank.

RESULTS

In all, there were 30,464 women who were medical faculty vs 60,609 men. Of those, 3623 women (11.9%) vs 17,354 men (28.6%) had full-professor appointments, for an absolute difference of -16.7% (95% CI, -17.3% to -16.2%). Women faculty were younger and disproportionately represented in internal medicine and pediatrics. The mean total number of publications for women was 11.6 vs 24.8 for men, for a difference of -13.2 (95% CI, -13.6 to -12.7); the mean first- or last-author publications for women was 5.9 vs 13.7 for men, for a difference of -7.8 (95% CI, -8.1 to -7.5). Among 9.1% of medical faculty with an NIH grant, 6.8% (2059 of 30,464) were women and 10.3% (6237 of 60,609) were men, for a difference of -3.5% (95% CI, -3.9% to -3.1%). In all, 6.4% of women vs 8.8% of men had a trial registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, for a difference of -2.4% (95% CI, -2.8% to -2.0%). After multivariable adjustment, women were less likely than men to have achieved full-professor status (absolute adjusted difference in proportion, -3.8%; 95% CI, -4.4% to -3.3%). Sex-differences in full professorship were present across all specialties and did not vary according to whether a physician's medical school was ranked highly in terms of research funding.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

Among physicians with faculty appointments at US medical schools, there were sex differences in academic faculty rank, with women substantially less likely than men to be full professors, after accounting for age, experience, specialty, and measures of research productivity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts2Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston3National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston5Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts6Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26372584

Citation

Jena, Anupam B., et al. "Sex Differences in Academic Rank in US Medical Schools in 2014." JAMA, vol. 314, no. 11, 2015, pp. 1149-58.
Jena AB, Khullar D, Ho O, et al. Sex Differences in Academic Rank in US Medical Schools in 2014. JAMA. 2015;314(11):1149-58.
Jena, A. B., Khullar, D., Ho, O., Olenski, A. R., & Blumenthal, D. M. (2015). Sex Differences in Academic Rank in US Medical Schools in 2014. JAMA, 314(11), 1149-58. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.10680
Jena AB, et al. Sex Differences in Academic Rank in US Medical Schools in 2014. JAMA. 2015 Sep 15;314(11):1149-58. PubMed PMID: 26372584.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sex Differences in Academic Rank in US Medical Schools in 2014. AU - Jena,Anupam B, AU - Khullar,Dhruv, AU - Ho,Oliver, AU - Olenski,Andrew R, AU - Blumenthal,Daniel M, PY - 2015/9/16/entrez PY - 2015/9/16/pubmed PY - 2015/10/2/medline SP - 1149 EP - 58 JF - JAMA JO - JAMA VL - 314 IS - 11 N2 - IMPORTANCE: The proportion of women at the rank of full professor in US medical schools has not increased since 1980 and remains below that of men. Whether differences in age, experience, specialty, and research productivity between sexes explain persistent disparities in faculty rank has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To analyze sex differences in faculty rank among US academic physicians. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed sex differences in faculty rank using a cross-sectional comprehensive database of US physicians with medical school faculty appointments in 2014 (91,073 physicians; 9.1% of all US physicians), linked to information on physician sex, age, years since residency, specialty, authored publications, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and clinical trial investigation. We estimated sex differences in full professorship, as well as a combined outcome of associate or full professorship, adjusting for these factors in a multilevel (hierarchical) model. We also analyzed how sex differences varied with specialty and whether differences were more prevalent at schools ranked highly in research. EXPOSURES: Physician sex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Academic faculty rank. RESULTS: In all, there were 30,464 women who were medical faculty vs 60,609 men. Of those, 3623 women (11.9%) vs 17,354 men (28.6%) had full-professor appointments, for an absolute difference of -16.7% (95% CI, -17.3% to -16.2%). Women faculty were younger and disproportionately represented in internal medicine and pediatrics. The mean total number of publications for women was 11.6 vs 24.8 for men, for a difference of -13.2 (95% CI, -13.6 to -12.7); the mean first- or last-author publications for women was 5.9 vs 13.7 for men, for a difference of -7.8 (95% CI, -8.1 to -7.5). Among 9.1% of medical faculty with an NIH grant, 6.8% (2059 of 30,464) were women and 10.3% (6237 of 60,609) were men, for a difference of -3.5% (95% CI, -3.9% to -3.1%). In all, 6.4% of women vs 8.8% of men had a trial registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, for a difference of -2.4% (95% CI, -2.8% to -2.0%). After multivariable adjustment, women were less likely than men to have achieved full-professor status (absolute adjusted difference in proportion, -3.8%; 95% CI, -4.4% to -3.3%). Sex-differences in full professorship were present across all specialties and did not vary according to whether a physician's medical school was ranked highly in terms of research funding. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among physicians with faculty appointments at US medical schools, there were sex differences in academic faculty rank, with women substantially less likely than men to be full professors, after accounting for age, experience, specialty, and measures of research productivity. SN - 1538-3598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26372584/Sex_Differences_in_Academic_Rank_in_US_Medical_Schools_in_2014_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/10.1001/jama.2015.10680 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -