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Presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in 11 cats: clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome.
J Feline Med Surg. 2017 01; 19(1):21-26.JF

Abstract

Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome in cats diagnosed with presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion. Methods Medical records and imaging studies of cats diagnosed with presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion were retrospectively reviewed. Information on long-term outcome was acquired from patient records and from either owners or referring veterinary surgeons via a telephone questionnaire. Results Eleven cats met the inclusion criteria. All cats had a peracute onset of clinical signs, with eight cats experiencing witnessed (n = 6) or suspected (n = 2) external trauma based on imaging findings. Neuroanatomical localisation included C1-C5 (n = 1), T3-L3 (n = 7) and L4-S3 (n = 3) spinal cord segments. MRI revealed acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusions located at C3-C4 (n = 1), T12-T13 (n = 1), T13-L1 (n = 1), L1-L2 (n = 1), L3-L4 (n = 3), L4-L5 (n = 1) and L5-L6 intervertebral disc spaces (n = 3). Treatment included supportive care and 10 cats were discharged with a median hospitalisation time of 10 days (range 3-26 days). One cat was euthanased during hospitalisation owing to complications unrelated to neurological disease. All cats that presented as non-ambulatory regained an ambulatory status with the median time to ambulation of 17 days (range 6-21 days). Overall, the outcome for cats diagnosed with acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion was successful, with almost 90% returning to ambulation with urinary and faecal continence. Conclusions and relevance The majority of cats diagnosed with acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion had good outcomes. Acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cats presenting with peracute onset of spinal cord dysfunction, particularly if there is a clinical history or evidence of trauma.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, UK.Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26377703

Citation

Taylor-Brown, Frances E., and Steven De Decker. "Presumptive Acute Non-compressive Nucleus Pulposus Extrusion in 11 Cats: Clinical Features, Diagnostic Imaging Findings, Treatment and Outcome." Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, vol. 19, no. 1, 2017, pp. 21-26.
Taylor-Brown FE, De Decker S. Presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in 11 cats: clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome. J Feline Med Surg. 2017;19(1):21-26.
Taylor-Brown, F. E., & De Decker, S. (2017). Presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in 11 cats: clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 19(1), 21-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098612X15605150
Taylor-Brown FE, De Decker S. Presumptive Acute Non-compressive Nucleus Pulposus Extrusion in 11 Cats: Clinical Features, Diagnostic Imaging Findings, Treatment and Outcome. J Feline Med Surg. 2017;19(1):21-26. PubMed PMID: 26377703.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in 11 cats: clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome. AU - Taylor-Brown,Frances E, AU - De Decker,Steven, Y1 - 2016/07/10/ PY - 2015/9/18/pubmed PY - 2017/8/23/medline PY - 2015/9/18/entrez SP - 21 EP - 26 JF - Journal of feline medicine and surgery JO - J Feline Med Surg VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome in cats diagnosed with presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion. Methods Medical records and imaging studies of cats diagnosed with presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion were retrospectively reviewed. Information on long-term outcome was acquired from patient records and from either owners or referring veterinary surgeons via a telephone questionnaire. Results Eleven cats met the inclusion criteria. All cats had a peracute onset of clinical signs, with eight cats experiencing witnessed (n = 6) or suspected (n = 2) external trauma based on imaging findings. Neuroanatomical localisation included C1-C5 (n = 1), T3-L3 (n = 7) and L4-S3 (n = 3) spinal cord segments. MRI revealed acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusions located at C3-C4 (n = 1), T12-T13 (n = 1), T13-L1 (n = 1), L1-L2 (n = 1), L3-L4 (n = 3), L4-L5 (n = 1) and L5-L6 intervertebral disc spaces (n = 3). Treatment included supportive care and 10 cats were discharged with a median hospitalisation time of 10 days (range 3-26 days). One cat was euthanased during hospitalisation owing to complications unrelated to neurological disease. All cats that presented as non-ambulatory regained an ambulatory status with the median time to ambulation of 17 days (range 6-21 days). Overall, the outcome for cats diagnosed with acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion was successful, with almost 90% returning to ambulation with urinary and faecal continence. Conclusions and relevance The majority of cats diagnosed with acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion had good outcomes. Acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cats presenting with peracute onset of spinal cord dysfunction, particularly if there is a clinical history or evidence of trauma. SN - 1532-2750 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26377703/Presumptive_acute_non_compressive_nucleus_pulposus_extrusion_in_11_cats:_clinical_features_diagnostic_imaging_findings_treatment_and_outcome_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1098612X15605150?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -