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Chronic neuropathic ulcer is not the most common antecedent of lower limb infection or amputation among diabetics admitted to a regional hospital in Jamaica: results from a prospective cohort study.
BMC Surg 2015; 15:104BS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Guidelines of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot state that "Amputation of the lower extremity or part of it is usually preceded by a foot ulcer". The authors' impression has been that this statement might not be applicable among patients treated in our institution. A prospective cohort study was designed to determine the frequency distribution of antecedents of lower limb infection or gangrene and amputation among adult diabetics admitted to a Regional Hospital in western Jamaica.

METHODS

Adult diabetics admitted to Hospital with a primary diagnosis of lower limb infection and/or gangrene were eligible for recruitment for a target sample size of 126. Thirty five variables were assessed for each patient-episode of infection and/or gangrene, main outcome variable being amputation during admission or 6-months follow-up. Primary statistical output is the frequency distribution of antecedents/precipitants of lower limb infection and/or gangrene. The data is interrogated by univariate and multivariable logistic regression for variables statistically associated with the main antecedent/precipitant events.

RESULTS

Data for 128 patient-episodes were recorded. Most common antecedents/precipitants, in order of decreasing frequency, were idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulceration (30.5%, CI; 22.6-39.2%), chronic neuropathic ulcer (23.4%, CI; 16.4-31.7%), closed puncture wounds (19.5%, CI; 13.1-27.5%) and critical limb ischemia (7.8%, CI; 3.8-13.9%). Variables positively associated with non-traumatic antecedents/precipitants at the 5% level of significance were male gender and non-ulcerative foot deformity for idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulcer; diabetes >5 years, previous infection either limb, insulin dependence and peripheral sensory neuropathy for chronic neuropathic ulcer and older age, diabetes >5 years, hypertension, non-palpable distal pulses and ankle-brachial index ≤0.4 for critical limb ischemia.

CONCLUSIONS

Chronic neuropathic ulcer accounted for only 23.4 % of lower limb infections and 27.7% of amputations in this population of diabetics, making it the second most common antecedent of either after acute idiopathic soft tissue infection/ulcer at 30.5 and 34.7% respectively. Trauma as a group (defined as closed puncture wounds, lacerations, contusion/blunt trauma and burns) also accounted for a greater number of lower limb infections but fewer amputations than chronic neuropathic ulcer, at 32 and 19.5% respectively.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Surgery, Cornwall Regional Hospital (CRH), Montego Bay, Jamaica. jeast@cwjamaica.com. Department of Surgery, Radiology, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 6, Jamaica. jeast@cwjamaica.com.Department of Surgery, Cornwall Regional Hospital (CRH), Montego Bay, Jamaica. Department of Surgery, Radiology, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 6, Jamaica.Department of Surgery, Cornwall Regional Hospital (CRH), Montego Bay, Jamaica. Department of Surgery, Radiology, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 6, Jamaica.Department of Surgery, Cornwall Regional Hospital (CRH), Montego Bay, Jamaica.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26391233

Citation

East, Jeffrey M., et al. "Chronic Neuropathic Ulcer Is Not the Most Common Antecedent of Lower Limb Infection or Amputation Among Diabetics Admitted to a Regional Hospital in Jamaica: Results From a Prospective Cohort Study." BMC Surgery, vol. 15, 2015, p. 104.
East JM, Fray DA, Hall DE, et al. Chronic neuropathic ulcer is not the most common antecedent of lower limb infection or amputation among diabetics admitted to a regional hospital in Jamaica: results from a prospective cohort study. BMC Surg. 2015;15:104.
East, J. M., Fray, D. A., Hall, D. E., & Longmore, C. A. (2015). Chronic neuropathic ulcer is not the most common antecedent of lower limb infection or amputation among diabetics admitted to a regional hospital in Jamaica: results from a prospective cohort study. BMC Surgery, 15, p. 104. doi:10.1186/s12893-015-0091-4.
East JM, et al. Chronic Neuropathic Ulcer Is Not the Most Common Antecedent of Lower Limb Infection or Amputation Among Diabetics Admitted to a Regional Hospital in Jamaica: Results From a Prospective Cohort Study. BMC Surg. 2015 Sep 21;15:104. PubMed PMID: 26391233.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chronic neuropathic ulcer is not the most common antecedent of lower limb infection or amputation among diabetics admitted to a regional hospital in Jamaica: results from a prospective cohort study. AU - East,Jeffrey M, AU - Fray,Delroy A, AU - Hall,Dwayne E, AU - Longmore,Chapman A, Y1 - 2015/09/21/ PY - 2015/04/26/received PY - 2015/09/11/accepted PY - 2015/9/23/entrez PY - 2015/9/24/pubmed PY - 2016/7/28/medline SP - 104 EP - 104 JF - BMC surgery JO - BMC Surg VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Guidelines of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot state that "Amputation of the lower extremity or part of it is usually preceded by a foot ulcer". The authors' impression has been that this statement might not be applicable among patients treated in our institution. A prospective cohort study was designed to determine the frequency distribution of antecedents of lower limb infection or gangrene and amputation among adult diabetics admitted to a Regional Hospital in western Jamaica. METHODS: Adult diabetics admitted to Hospital with a primary diagnosis of lower limb infection and/or gangrene were eligible for recruitment for a target sample size of 126. Thirty five variables were assessed for each patient-episode of infection and/or gangrene, main outcome variable being amputation during admission or 6-months follow-up. Primary statistical output is the frequency distribution of antecedents/precipitants of lower limb infection and/or gangrene. The data is interrogated by univariate and multivariable logistic regression for variables statistically associated with the main antecedent/precipitant events. RESULTS: Data for 128 patient-episodes were recorded. Most common antecedents/precipitants, in order of decreasing frequency, were idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulceration (30.5%, CI; 22.6-39.2%), chronic neuropathic ulcer (23.4%, CI; 16.4-31.7%), closed puncture wounds (19.5%, CI; 13.1-27.5%) and critical limb ischemia (7.8%, CI; 3.8-13.9%). Variables positively associated with non-traumatic antecedents/precipitants at the 5% level of significance were male gender and non-ulcerative foot deformity for idiopathic acute soft tissue infection/ulcer; diabetes >5 years, previous infection either limb, insulin dependence and peripheral sensory neuropathy for chronic neuropathic ulcer and older age, diabetes >5 years, hypertension, non-palpable distal pulses and ankle-brachial index ≤0.4 for critical limb ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic neuropathic ulcer accounted for only 23.4 % of lower limb infections and 27.7% of amputations in this population of diabetics, making it the second most common antecedent of either after acute idiopathic soft tissue infection/ulcer at 30.5 and 34.7% respectively. Trauma as a group (defined as closed puncture wounds, lacerations, contusion/blunt trauma and burns) also accounted for a greater number of lower limb infections but fewer amputations than chronic neuropathic ulcer, at 32 and 19.5% respectively. SN - 1471-2482 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26391233/Chronic_neuropathic_ulcer_is_not_the_most_common_antecedent_of_lower_limb_infection_or_amputation_among_diabetics_admitted_to_a_regional_hospital_in_Jamaica:_results_from_a_prospective_cohort_study_ L2 - https://bmcsurg.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12893-015-0091-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -