Intensified Chemotherapy With Dexrazoxane Cardioprotection in Newly Diagnosed Nonmetastatic Osteosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016; 63(1):54-61PB
Although chemotherapy has improved outcome of osteosarcoma, 30-40% of patients succumb to this disease. Survivors experience substantial morbidity and mortality from anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that the cardioprotectant dexrazoxane would (i) support escalation of the cumulative doxorubicin dose (600 mg/m(2)) and (ii) not interfere with the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy measured by necrosis grading in comparison to historical control data.
Children and adolescents with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma were treated with MAP (methotrexate, doxorubicin, cisplatin) or MAPI (MAP/ifosfamide). Dexrazoxane was administered with all doxorubicin doses. Cardioprotection was assessed by measuring left ventricular fractional shortening. Interference with chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity was determined by measuring tumor necrosis after induction chemotherapy. Feasibility of intensifying therapy with either high cumulative-dose doxorubicin or high-dose ifosfamide/etoposide was evaluated for "standard responders" (SR, <98% tumor necrosis at definitive surgery).
Dexrazoxane did not compromise response to induction chemotherapy. With doxorubicin (450-600 mg/m(2)) and dexrazoxane, grade 1 or 2 left ventricular dysfunction occurred in five patients; 4/5 had transient effects. Left ventricular fractional shortening z-scores (FSZ) showed minimal reductions (0.0170 ± 0.009/week) over 78 weeks. Two patients (<1%) had secondary leukemia, one as a first event, a similar rate to what has been observed in prior trials. Intensification with high-dose ifosfamide/etoposide was also feasible.
Dexrazoxane cardioprotection was safely administered. It did not impair tumor response or increase the risk of secondary malignancy. Dexrazoxane allowed for therapeutic intensification increasing the cumulative doxorubicin dose in SR to induction chemotherapy. These findings support the use of dexrazoxane in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.