Histoplasmosis: Up-to-Date Evidence-Based Approach to Diagnosis and Management.Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Oct; 36(5):729-45.SR
Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in the North America, Central America, and many countries of South America and also occurs in China, India, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, and Europe. Clinical syndromes are not specific and histoplasmosis often is overlooked in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, chronic cavitary pneumonia resembling tuberculosis or anaerobic infection, granulomatous inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis or Crohn disease, and malignancy. The diagnosis depends on understanding the geographic distribution, common clinical presentations, and tests used for diagnosis of histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis resolves without treatment in most patients, treatment is indicated in all immunocompromised patients and those with progressive disseminated disease or chronic pulmonary disease. Treatment is appropriate in most patients with acute pulmonary disease but rarely in those with other pulmonary or mediastinal manifestations. The preferred agents include liposomal amphotericin B for more severe cases and itraconazole for milder cases and "step-down" therapy following response to amphotericin B.