High-dose vitamin D3 in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.Am J Clin Nutr 2015; 102(5):1059-69AJ
Tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a major global health problem. Individuals with tuberculosis disease commonly exhibit vitamin D deficiency, which may adversely affect immunity and the response to therapy.
We determined whether adjunctive high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves outcomes in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis disease.
The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, intent-to-treat trial in 199 individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis disease in Tbilisi, Georgia. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive oral vitamin D3 [50,000 IUs (1.25 mg) thrice weekly for 8 wk and 50,000 IU every other week for 8 wk] or a placebo concomitant with standard first-line antituberculosis drugs. The primary outcome was the time for the conversion of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) sputum culture to negative.
Baseline characteristics between groups were similar. Most subjects (74%) were vitamin D deficient (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <50 nmol/L). With vitamin D3, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations peaked at ∼250 nmol/L by 8 wk and decreased to ∼125 nmol/L at week 16. Adverse events and plasma calcium concentrations were similar between groups. In 192 subjects with culture-confirmed tuberculosis, an adjusted efficacy analysis showed similar median culture-conversion times between vitamin D3 and placebo groups [29 and 27 d, respectively; HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.18; P = 0.33). Eight-week culture-conversion rates were also similar (84.0% and 82.1% for vitamin D3 and placebo, respectively; P = 0.99).
A high-dose vitamin D3 regimen safely corrected vitamin D deficiency but did not improve the rate of sputum Mtb clearance over 16 wk in this pulmonary tuberculosis cohort. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov at NCT00918086.