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Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Sep 23; 15:335.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties.

METHODS

E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay.

RESULTS

When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 30 to >100 μg/mL.

CONCLUSIONS

In general, therefore, based on the potent antioxidant and anticancer activity of flower extracts, it appears that E. elatior grown in the North-east of Malaysia (Kelantan) is a potential source of therapeutic compounds with anti-cancer activity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. alighasemzadeh@upm.edu.my.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. hawazej@upm.edu.my.Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. asmah@upm.edu.my.Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ashkani.sadegh@upm.edu.my. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shahr-e- Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. ashkani.sadegh@upm.edu.my.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26399961

Citation

Ghasemzadeh, Ali, et al. "Secondary Metabolites Constituents and Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activities of Etlingera Elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Grown in Different Locations of Malaysia." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, 2015, p. 335.
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, et al. Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:335.
Ghasemzadeh, A., Jaafar, H. Z., Rahmat, A., & Ashkani, S. (2015). Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 335. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0838-6
Ghasemzadeh A, et al. Secondary Metabolites Constituents and Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activities of Etlingera Elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Grown in Different Locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Sep 23;15:335. PubMed PMID: 26399961.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia. AU - Ghasemzadeh,Ali, AU - Jaafar,Hawa Z E, AU - Rahmat,Asmah, AU - Ashkani,Sadegh, Y1 - 2015/09/23/ PY - 2015/06/02/received PY - 2015/08/28/accepted PY - 2015/9/25/entrez PY - 2015/9/25/pubmed PY - 2016/4/20/medline SP - 335 EP - 335 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 15 N2 - BACKGROUND: Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties. METHODS: E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. RESULTS: When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 30 to >100 μg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: In general, therefore, based on the potent antioxidant and anticancer activity of flower extracts, it appears that E. elatior grown in the North-east of Malaysia (Kelantan) is a potential source of therapeutic compounds with anti-cancer activity. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26399961/Secondary_metabolites_constituents_and_antioxidant_anticancer_and_antibacterial_activities_of_Etlingera_elatior__Jack__R_M_Sm_grown_in_different_locations_of_Malaysia_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0838-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -