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Characteristics of Travelers to Asia Requiring Multidose Vaccine Schedules: Japanese Encephalitis and Rabies Prevention.
J Travel Med. 2015 Nov-Dec; 22(6):403-9.JT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Japanese encephalitis (JE) and rabies are serious vaccine preventable diseases which are an important consideration for travelers to Asia.

METHODS

Five Boston-area travel clinics collected demographic data, trip information, and interventions for travelers to Asia seen at pre-travel consultations from March 1, 2008, through July 31, 2010. We evaluated travelers for proportion vaccinated for JE and rabies, those traveling for >1 month, and whether travelers had adequate time to complete the JE series (clinic visit ≥28 days before departure) and rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (clinic visit ≥21 days before departure).

RESULTS

Among 15,440 travelers from five Boston Area Travel Medicine Network travel clinics, Asia was the most common destination region, visited by 5,582 (36%) of travelers. Among these travelers, 4,810 (86%) planned to travel to only one Asian subregion. Median trip duration was 17 days, with more than 20% traveling for >1 month. The most common destinations were South (41%), Southeast (26%), and East (23%) Asia. Of those traveling to South, Southeast, or East Asia, over one-third with trips >1 month had insufficient time to complete a series for either JE or rabies vaccine. Overall, only 10% of travelers were vaccinated (past and pre-travel visit) for either JE or rabies, with lowest percentages among travelers visiting friends and relatives. Most travelers received advice on vector precautions (96%) and rabies prevention, which included avoiding animal contact, washing wounds, and obtaining appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (88%).

CONCLUSION

Given the insufficient time for completion and relatively low vaccination rates, greater awareness of earlier pre-travel consultations, at least 4-6 weeks before travel, and accurate risk assessment for travelers are important. Effective counseling about vector avoidance, rabies, and animal bite prevention and management remains critical.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Faculty of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.Faculty of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26420372

Citation

Walker, Xaviour J., et al. "Characteristics of Travelers to Asia Requiring Multidose Vaccine Schedules: Japanese Encephalitis and Rabies Prevention." Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 22, no. 6, 2015, pp. 403-9.
Walker XJ, Barnett ED, Wilson ME, et al. Characteristics of Travelers to Asia Requiring Multidose Vaccine Schedules: Japanese Encephalitis and Rabies Prevention. J Travel Med. 2015;22(6):403-9.
Walker, X. J., Barnett, E. D., Wilson, M. E., Macleod, W. B., Jentes, E. S., Karchmer, A. W., Hamer, D. H., & Chen, L. H. (2015). Characteristics of Travelers to Asia Requiring Multidose Vaccine Schedules: Japanese Encephalitis and Rabies Prevention. Journal of Travel Medicine, 22(6), 403-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jtm.12237
Walker XJ, et al. Characteristics of Travelers to Asia Requiring Multidose Vaccine Schedules: Japanese Encephalitis and Rabies Prevention. J Travel Med. 2015 Nov-Dec;22(6):403-9. PubMed PMID: 26420372.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characteristics of Travelers to Asia Requiring Multidose Vaccine Schedules: Japanese Encephalitis and Rabies Prevention. AU - Walker,Xaviour J, AU - Barnett,Elizabeth D, AU - Wilson,Mary E, AU - Macleod,William B, AU - Jentes,Emily S, AU - Karchmer,Adolf W, AU - Hamer,Davidson H, AU - Chen,Lin H, AU - ,, Y1 - 2015/09/29/ PY - 2015/04/10/received PY - 2015/07/21/revised PY - 2015/08/03/accepted PY - 2015/10/1/entrez PY - 2015/10/1/pubmed PY - 2016/8/10/medline SP - 403 EP - 9 JF - Journal of travel medicine JO - J Travel Med VL - 22 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) and rabies are serious vaccine preventable diseases which are an important consideration for travelers to Asia. METHODS: Five Boston-area travel clinics collected demographic data, trip information, and interventions for travelers to Asia seen at pre-travel consultations from March 1, 2008, through July 31, 2010. We evaluated travelers for proportion vaccinated for JE and rabies, those traveling for >1 month, and whether travelers had adequate time to complete the JE series (clinic visit ≥28 days before departure) and rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (clinic visit ≥21 days before departure). RESULTS: Among 15,440 travelers from five Boston Area Travel Medicine Network travel clinics, Asia was the most common destination region, visited by 5,582 (36%) of travelers. Among these travelers, 4,810 (86%) planned to travel to only one Asian subregion. Median trip duration was 17 days, with more than 20% traveling for >1 month. The most common destinations were South (41%), Southeast (26%), and East (23%) Asia. Of those traveling to South, Southeast, or East Asia, over one-third with trips >1 month had insufficient time to complete a series for either JE or rabies vaccine. Overall, only 10% of travelers were vaccinated (past and pre-travel visit) for either JE or rabies, with lowest percentages among travelers visiting friends and relatives. Most travelers received advice on vector precautions (96%) and rabies prevention, which included avoiding animal contact, washing wounds, and obtaining appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (88%). CONCLUSION: Given the insufficient time for completion and relatively low vaccination rates, greater awareness of earlier pre-travel consultations, at least 4-6 weeks before travel, and accurate risk assessment for travelers are important. Effective counseling about vector avoidance, rabies, and animal bite prevention and management remains critical. SN - 1708-8305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26420372/Characteristics_of_Travelers_to_Asia_Requiring_Multidose_Vaccine_Schedules:_Japanese_Encephalitis_and_Rabies_Prevention_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/jtm.12237 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -